February 9, 2016

Chapter 1 References

Parenting Begins Before Pregnancy


The Parental Age Effect

Keywords: maternal age, paternal age, age and fertility

D’Onofrio BM, et al., Paternal age at childbearing and offspring psychiatric and academic morbidity., JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(4):432-438. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4525.


The Most Important Prenatal Vitamin

Keywords: prenatal/antenatal supplements/vitamins, folate, folic acid, iron, iodine, Cochrane

Folic Acid

Colapinto CK, et al., Folate status of the population in the Canadian Health Measures Survey., CMAJ. 2011 Feb 8;183(2):E100-6. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.100568. Epub 2010 Dec 13.

Corcino JJ., et al., Jejunal Perfusion of Simple and Conjugated Folates in Tropical Sprue. J Clin Invest. 1976 Aug; 58(2): 298–305. doi:  10.1172/JCI108472.

De‐Regil LM, et al.,  Effects and safety of periconceptional folate supplementation for preventing birth defects. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD007950. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007950.pub2

Ebbing M, et al., Cancer Incidence and Mortality After Treatment With Folic Acid and Vitamin B12, JAMA. 2009;302(19):2119-2126. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1622.

Honein MA, et al., Impact of folic acid fortification of the US food supply on the occurrence of neural tube defects., JAMA. 2001 Jun 20;285(23):2981-6.

Mersereau P, et al., Spina Bifida and Anencephaly Before and After Folic Acid Mandate — United States, 1995–1996 and 1999—2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004 May 7;53(17):362-5.

Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, et al., Folate intake, alcohol use, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial., Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr;83(4):895-904.

Williams LJ, et al., Prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly during the transition to mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States. Teratology. 2002 Jul;66(1):33-9.


Iron and Iodine

Abalovich M., et al., Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;92(8 Suppl):S1-47.

Becker DV., et al., Iodine supplementation for pregnancy and lactation-United States and Canada: recommendations of the American Thyroid Association., Thyroid. 2006 Oct;16(10):949-51.

Connelly KJ., et al.,  Congenital hypothyroidism caused by excess prenatal maternal iodine ingestion. J Pediatr. 2012 Oct;161(4):760-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.05.057

Haider BA., et al., Anaemia, prenatal iron use, and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis., BMJ 2013 June 21; 346 doi:10.1136/bmj.f3443.

Hollowell JG, Haddow JE., The prevalence of iodine deficiency in women of reproductive age in the United States of America., Public Health Nutr. 2007 Dec;10(12A):1532-9; discussion 1540-1. doi: 10.1017/S1368980007360862.

Leung AM., et al., History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation., Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1740-1746; doi:10.3390/nu4111740.

Pearce EN., Iodine in Pregnancy: Is Salt Iodization Enough?, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul; 93(7): 2466–2468. doi:  10.1210/jc.2008-1009

Peña-Rosas JP, Viteri FE., Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron + folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD004736. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004736.pub3.

Perrine CG., et al.,  Some subgroups of reproductive age women in the United States may be at risk for iodine deficiency. J Nutr. 2010 Aug;140(8):1489-94. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.120147.

Rogan WJ, et al., Iodine deficiency, pollutant chemicals, and the thyroid: new information on an old problem. Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):1163-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0900.

Skeaff SA., Iodine deficiency in pregnancy: the effect on neurodevelopment in the child., Nutrients. 2011 Feb;3(2):265-73. doi: 10.3390/nu3020265.

Zhou SJ., et al., Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnancy on child development and other clinical outcomes: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials., Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov;98(5):1241-54. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.065854.

Zimmermann MB., The effects of iodine deficiency in pregnancy and infancy., Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012 Jul;26 Suppl 1:108-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2012.01275.x.


The enigma of vitamin D

Baker AM., et al., A nested case-control study of midgestation vitamin D deficiency and risk of severe preeclampsia., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov;95(11):5105-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-0996. 

Nassar N., et al., Systematic review of first-trimester vitamin D normative levels and outcomes of pregnancy., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Sep;205(3):208.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.03.058.

Norval M, Wulf HC., Does chronic sunscreen use reduce vitamin D production to insufficient levels? Br J Dermatol. 2009 Oct;161(4):732-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09332.x.

Tabesh M, et al., Maternal vitamin D status and risk of pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Aug;98(8):3165-73. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-1257.

Zhao G., et al., Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency and Inadequacy among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States., ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2012;2012:691486. doi: 10.5402/2012/691486


The Rest of the Alphabet

Chun OK., et al., Estimation of antioxidant intakes from diet and supplements in U.S. adults., J Nutr. 2010 Feb;140(2):317-24. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.114413.

Hofmeyr GJ., et al., Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Aug 4;(8):CD001059. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001059.pub3

Makrides M, et al., There is not enough high quality evidence to show that dietary magnesium supplementation during pregnancy is beneficial. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD000937. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000937.pub2.

Mori R., et al.,  Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jul 11;7:CD000230. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000230.pub4.
Rayman MP., Selenium and human health. Lancet. 2012 Mar 31;379(9822):1256-68. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61452-9.

Rehana A Salam, et al., Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) supplementation during pregnancy or labour for maternal and neonatal outcomes., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000179. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000179.pub2

Rothman KJ., et al., Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake., N Engl J Med. 1995 Nov 23;333(21):1369-73.

Rumbold A, Crowther CA., Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD004072.

Rumbold A, Crowther CA., Vitamin E supplementation in pregnancy., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD004069.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD004069.

van den Broek N, et al., Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn health outcomes., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD008666. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008666.pub2


Whether to Worry About Weight During Pregnancy

Keywords: pregnancy weight gain, BMI, maternal obesity, pregnancy weight

Chu SY, et al., Maternal obesity and risk of cesarean delivery: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2007 Sep;8(5):385-94.

Chu SY, et al., Maternal obesity and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus., Diabetes Care., 2007 Aug;30(8):2070-6.

Committee on Obstetric Practice., Weight gain during pregnancy. Committee Opinion No. 548. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol 2013;121:210–2.

Dekker GA, et al., Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in an International Prospective Cohort of Nulliparous Women. Baradaran HR, ed. PLoS ONE 2012;7(7):e39154. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039154.

Ferraro ZM, et al., Excessive gestational weight gain predicts large for gestational age neonates independent of maternal body mass index., J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 May;25(5):538-42. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2011.638953.

Kanadys WM, et al., Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of preterm birth: a systematic overview of cohort studies with meta-analysis. [Article in Polish] Ginekol Pol. 2012 Apr;83(4):270-9.

Langford A, et al., Does gestational weight gain affect the risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes in overweight women? Matern Child Health J. 2011 Oct;15(7):860-5. doi: 10.1007/s10995-008-0318-4.

Maconochie N, et al., Risk factors for first trimester miscarriage–results from a UK-population-based case-control study., BJOG. 2007 Feb;114(2):170-86.

Oteng-Ntim E, et al., Lifestyle interventions for overweight and obese pregnant women to improve pregnancy outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Medicine 2012;10:47. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-10-47.

Park S,et al., Assessment of the Institute of Medicine recommendations for weight gain during pregnancy: Florida, 2004-2007. Matern Child Health J. 2011 Apr;15(3):289-301. doi: 10.1007/s10995-010-0596-5.

Rasmussen SA, et al., Maternal obesity and risk of neural tube defects: a meta analysis.  Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun;198(6):611-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.04.021.

Savitz DA, et al., Gestational weight gain and birth outcome in relation to prepregnancy body mass index and ethnicity. Ann Epidemiol. 2011 Feb;21(2):78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.06.009.

Schack-Nielsen L, et al., Gestational weight gain in relation to offspring body mass index and obesity from infancy through adulthood. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jan;34(1):67-74. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2009.206.

Sharifzadeh F, et al., Relationship between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI with spontaneous preterm delivery and birth weight. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015 May;35(4):354-7. doi: 10.3109/01443615.2014.968101.

Thangaratinam S, et al., Health Technol Assess. 2012 Jul;16(31):iii-iv, 1-191. doi: 10.3310/hta16310. Interventions to reduce or prevent obesity in pregnant women: a systematic review.

Torloni MR, et al., Prepregnancy BMI and the risk of gestational diabetes: a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis., Obes Rev. 2009 Mar;10(2):194-203. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00541.x.

Yu Z, et al., Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index in Relation to Infant Birth Weight and Offspring Overweight/Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Baradaran HR, ed. PLoS ONE 2013;8(4):e61627. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061627.



Keywords: orphanage behaviors, adoption disruption, self regulation, attachment forming

Grotevant HD, McDermott JM., Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation. Annu Rev Psychol. 2014;65:235-65. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115020.

Lavner JA, et al., Can gay and lesbian parents promote healthy development in high-risk children adopted from foster care?, Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2012 Oct;82(4):465-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01176.x.

Miller LC., 2005 Health of children adopted from Guatemala: comparison of orphanage and foster care., Pediatrics. 2005 Jun;115(6):e710-7.

Miller LC., Immediate behavioral and developmental considerations for internationally adopted children transitioning to families., Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 Oct;52(5):1311-30, vi-vii

Murphy, N., Facilitating attachment after international adoption., MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2009 Jul-Aug;34(4):210-5; quiz 216-7. doi: 10.1097/01.NMC.0000357911.10606.63.

Selwyn, J., et al., Beyond the adoption order: challenges, intervention, disruption., 2014 Apr 9., UK Department for Education., ISBN: 978-1-78105-307-2.

van den Dries L, et al., Infants’ physical and cognitive development after international adoption from foster care or institutions in China., J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010 Feb-Mar;31(2):144-50. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181cdaa3a.

Van Ijzendoorn MH, et al., Plasticity of growth in height, weight, and head circumference: meta-analytic evidence of massive catch-up after international adoption. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):334-43.

Viana AG, Welsh JA., Correlates and predictors of parenting stress among internationally adopting mothers: A longitudinal investigation., Int J Behav Dev. 2010 Jul;34(4):363-373.

Weitzman C., Albers L., Long-term developmental, behavioral, and attachment outcomes after international adoption., Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 Oct;52(5):1395-419, viii.


The Relevance of Parental Gender

Keywords: gender, civil marriage, adoption, foster care, children of gay and lesbian parents, marriage equality

Manning WD, et al., Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief., Popul Res Policy Rev. 2014 Aug 1;33(4):485-502.

Siegel BS, et al., Promoting the well-being of children whose parents are gay or lesbian., Pediatrics. 2013 Apr;131(4):827-30. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0376


The Facts About Genetic Anomalies and Inheritance

Keywords: complex diseases, family history, personal genome testing, risk comparison, risk estimates, genetic anomalies, genetic testing

Aiyar L., et al., Risk estimates for complex disorders: comparing personal genome testing and family history. Genet Med. 2014 Mar;16(3):231-7. doi: 10.1038/gim.2013.115.

Bloss CS., et al., Effect of direct-to-consumer genomewide profiling to assess disease risk., N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb 10;364(6):524-34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1011893.

Bloss CS., et al., Impact of direct-to-consumer genomic testing at long term follow-up. J Med Genet., 2013 Jun;50(6):393-400. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-101207.

Buitendijk GH,et al., Direct-to-consumer personal genome testing for age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Aug 21;55(10):6167-74. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15142.

Do CB, et al., Comparison of family history and SNPs for predicting risk of complex disease., PLoS Genet. 2012;8(10):e1002973. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002973.

Doe G., (Sep 9, 2014) With genetic testing, I gave my parents the gift of divorce., http://vox.com. 2014 Sep 9.

Kalf RR, et. al., Variations in predicted risks in personal genome testing for common complex diseases., Genet Med. 2014 Jan; 16(1): 10.1038/gim.2013.80.

National Society of Genetic Counselors., Position Statement on Direct-to-Consumer testing., http://nsgc.org/ 2015 June 19.

Regalado A., For one baby, life begins with genome revealed. 2014 June 13; MIT Tech.

Vayena E., Direct-to-consumer genomics on the scales of autonomy. J Med Ethics. 2015 Apr;41(4):310-4. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2014-102026.


Selecting A Maternity Healthcare Provider

Keywords: certified nurse midwife, certified professional midwife, direct-entry midwife, birthing center

Kozhimannil KB, et al., Recent trends in clinicians providing care to pregnant women in the United States., J Midwifery Womens Health. 2012 Sep-Oct;57(5):433-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-2011.2012.00171.x.

Munro S, et al., Models of maternity care in rural environments: barriers and attributes of interprofessional collaboration with midwives., Midwifery. 2013 Jun;29(6):646-52. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2012.06.004.

Pecci CC, et al., The birth of a collaborative model: obstetricians, midwives, and family physicians. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2012 Sep;39(3):323-34. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2012.05.001.

Pennell A, et al., Anesthesia and analgesia-related preferences and outcomes of women who have birth plans., J Midwifery Womens Health. 2011 Jul-Aug;56(4):376-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-2011.2011.00032.x.

Stevens JR, et al., Description of a successful collaborative birth center practice among midwives and an obstetrician. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am., 2012 Sep;39(3):347-57. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2012.05.003.

World Health Organization. Nursing and Midwifery. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/nursing-and-midwifery


The Conception Calendar

Keywords: proliferative phase, luteal phase, ovulation, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estrogen, cervical changes


The In Vitro Effect

Keywords: IVF, in vitro fertilization, assisted reproduction, pregnancy outcomes, developmental, congenital malformation, birth defects

Hahn CS., Review: psychosocial well-being of parents and their children born after assisted reproduction., J Pediatr Psychol. 2001 Dec;26(8):525-38.

Kawwass JF., et al., Safety of assisted reproductive technology in the United States, 2000-2011. JAMA., 2015 Jan 6;313(1):88-90. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.14488.

Simpson JL., Birth defects and assisted reproductive technologies., Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Jun;19(3):177-82. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2014.01.001.

Wagenaar K., et al., An overview of studies on early development, cognition, and psychosocial well-being in children born after in vitro fertilization., J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2008 Jun;29(3):219-30. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e318173a575.

Wagenaar K., et al., Behavior and socioemotional functioning in 9-18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization., Fertil Steril. 2009 Dec;92(6):1907-14. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.09.026.