February 9, 2016

Chapter 2 References

Bun in the Oven

The Benefits and Risks of Embryonic and Fetal Screening Tests

Keywords: alpha-fetoprotein, neural tube defects, trisomy, monosomy, pregnancy screening test, nuchal screen, chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis

Norwitz ER, Levy B., Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: The Future Is Now., Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2013;6(2):48-62.

Gekas J, et al., Identification of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and Down syndrome from maternal plasma., The Application of Clinical Genetics 2014;7:127-131. doi:10.2147/TACG.S35602.

Norwitz ER, Levy B. Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: The Future Is Now., Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2013;6(2):48-62.

Gekas J, et al., Identification of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and Down syndrome from maternal plasma., The Application of Clinical Genetics 2014;7:127-131. doi:10.2147/TACG.S35602.


Cell-free DNA testing

Buysse K, et al., Detecting fetal subchromosomal aberrations by MPS: an unexpected discrepancy between amniocyte DNA and ccffDNA., Prenat Diagn. 2014 Apr;34(4):402-5. doi: 10.1002/pd.4312.

Palomaki GE, et al.,  DNA sequencing of maternal plasma to detect Down syndrome: an international clinical validation study., Genet Med. 2011 Nov;13(11):913-20. doi: 10.1097/GIM.0b013e3182368a0e.


Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling

Amniocentesis. Reviewed by Nivin Todd, MD for WebMD on June 08, 2015

Chorionic villus sampling. Reviewed by Pagano T, MD for WebMD 2014.


Ultrasound screening

Benn P, et al., Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy: current status and future prospects., Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jul;42(1):15-33. doi: 10.1002/uog.12513.


Neural tube defect screening and other biomarkers

Driscoll DA., Gross SJ.,Screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects., Genetics in Medicine 2009;11(11):818-821. doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181bb267b.

Quest Diagnostics, Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects, Down Syndrome,and Trisomy 18. Accessed online February 2015.


Autism: What We Know About Causes

Keywords: autism, single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNP, chromosome number variation, CNV, paternal age, concordance, heritability, twin studies, familial autism, genes and environment, multifactorial condition

Blumenthal I, et al. Transcriptional Consequences of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication in Mouse Cortex and Multiplex Autism Families., American Journal of Human Genetics 2014;94(6):870-883. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.05.004.

Chaste P, et al., Modest impact on risk for autism spectrum disorder of rare copy number variants at 15q11.2, specifically breakpoints 1 to 2., Autism Res. 2014 Jun;7(3):355-62. doi: 10.1002/aur.1378. Epub 2014 May 12.

Griswold AJ, et al. Evaluation of copy number variations reveals novel candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder-associated pathways. Human Molecular Genetics 2012;21(15):3513-3523. doi:10.1093/hmg/dds164.

Hallmayer J, et al., Genetic heritability and shared environmental factors among twin pairs with autism., Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Nov;68(11):1095-102. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.76. Epub 2011 Jul 4.

Hamdan FF, Daoud H, Rochefort D, et al. De Novo Mutations in FOXP1 in Cases with Intellectual Disability, Autism, and Language Impairment. American Journal of Human Genetics 2010;87(5):671-678. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.09.017.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute., Online video: Decoding the Autism Puzzle., Accessed February 2015.

Neale BM, et al. Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders. Nature 2012;485(7397):242-245. doi:10.1038/nature11011.

O’Roak BJ, et al. Exome sequencing in sporadic autism spectrum disorders identifies severe de novo mutations. Nature genetics2011;43(6):585-589. doi:10.1038/ng.835.

O’Roak BJ, et al. Sporadic autism exomes reveal a highly interconnected protein network of de novo mutations., Nature 2012;485(7397):246-250. doi:10.1038/nature10989.

Sanders SJ, et al., De novo mutations revealed by whole exome sequencing are strongly associated with autism., Nature 2012;485(7397):237-241. doi:10.1038/nature10945

Sandin S, et al., The familial risk of autism., JAMA. 2014 May 7;311(17):1770-7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.4144.

Stefansson H., et al., CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls., Nature. 2014 Jan 16;505(7483):361-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12818. Epub 2013 Dec 18

Stoner R, et al., Patches of disorganization in the neocortex of children with autism., N Engl J Med. 2014 Mar 27;370(13):1209-19. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1307491.


Morning Sickness Management

Keywords: gravidity, maternal nausea and vomiting, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, psychosocial health, ginger, metoclopramide, ondansetron

Chan RL., et al., Maternal influences on nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Matern Child Health J. 2011 Jan;15(1):122-7. doi: 10.1007/s10995-009-0548-0.

Chan RL., et al., Severity and duration of nausea and vomiting symptoms in pregnancy and spontaneous abortion., Hum Reprod. 2010 Nov;25(11):2907-12. doi: 10.1093/humrep/deq260.

Einarson TR., et al., Quantifying the global rates of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a meta analysis., J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2013;20(2):e171-83.

Klebanoff MA, et al., Epidemiology of vomiting in early pregnancy., Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Nov;66(5):612-6.

Koren G. ,Treating morning sickness in the United States–changes in prescribing are needed., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Dec;211(6):602-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.08.017.

Kramer J, et al., Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: prevalence, severity and relation to psychosocial health., MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2013 Jan-Feb;38(1):21-7. doi: 10.1097/NMC.0b013e3182748489.

Kuru O., et al., Outcomes of pregnancies complicated by hyperemesis gravidarum, Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Jun;285(6):1517-21. doi: 10.1007/s00404-011-2176-3. Epub 2011 Dec 24.

Lacroix R., et al., Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: A prospective study of its frequency, intensity, and patterns of change., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Apr;182(4):931-7.

Matthews A., et al., Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Mar 21;3:CD007575. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007575.pub3.

Pasternak B, et al., Metoclopramide in Pregnancy and Risk of Major Congenital Malformations and Fetal Death., JAMA. 2013;310(15):1601-1611. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.278343.

Pasternak B., et al., Ondansetron in pregnancy and risk of adverse fetal outcomes., N Engl J Med. 2013 Feb 28;368(9):814-23. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1211035.

Viljoen E., et al., A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting.Nutr J. 2014 Mar 19;13:20. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-20.

Weigel MM., et al., Is the nausea and vomiting of early pregnancy really feto-protective?, J Perinat Med. 2006;34(2):115-22.


Pregnancy and Mood

Keywords: prenatal/antenatal/perinatal depression, prenatal/antenatal/perinatal + mood disorders, pregnancy, anxiety

Alder J., et al., Depression and anxiety during pregnancy: a risk factor for obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcome? A critical review of the literature., J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Mar;20(3):189-209.

Bennett HA., et al., Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review., Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;103(4):698-709.

Cohen LS., et al., Relapse of major depression during pregnancy in women who maintain or discontinue antidepressant treatment., JAMA. 2006 Feb 1;295(5):499-507.

Cohen LS., et al., Treatment of mood disorders during pregnancy and postpartum., Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010 Jun;33(2):273-93. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2010.02.001.

Evans J., et al., Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth., BMJ. 2001 Aug 4;323(7307):257-60.

Howard LM., et al., Domestic violence and perinatal mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis., PLoS Med. 2013;10(5):e1001452. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001452.

Mulder EJ., et al., Prenatal maternal stress: effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child., Early Hum Dev. 2002 Dec;70(1-2):3-14.


Stress in Pregnancy: It’s Complicated

Keywords: prenatal/antenatal/perinatal, stress, outcomes

Armony-Sivan R., et al., Prenatal maternal stress predicts cord-blood ferritin concentration., J Perinat Med. 2013 May;41(3):259-65. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2012-0125.

Chen MJ., et al., The use of psychosocial stress scales in preterm birth research., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Nov;205(5):402-34. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.05.003.

Endara SM., et al., Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001., BMC Public Health. 2009 Jul 20;9:252. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-252.

Hoffman S, Hatch MC., Stress, social support and pregnancy outcome: a reassessment based on recent research., Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1996 Oct;10(4):380-405.

Kramer MR., et al., Preconceptional stress and racial disparities in preterm birth: an overview., Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand., 2011 Dec;90(12):1307-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01136.x.

Slykerman RF., et al., Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with moderate to severe depression in 11-year-old children., Acta Paediatr. 2015 Jan;104(1):68-74. doi: 10.1111/apa.12787.

Strutz KL., et al.,Preconception stress, birth weight, and birth weight disparities among US women., Am J Public Health. 2014 Aug;104(8):e125-32. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301904.

Talge NM, et al.,Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why?, J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Mar-Apr;48(3-4):245-61.

Tsubouchi H., et al., Effect of coffee intake on blood flow and maternal stress during the third trimester of pregnancy., Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006 Jan;92(1):19-22.

Witt WP., et al., Maternal stressful life events prior to conception and the impact on infant birth weight in the United States., Am J Public Health. 2014 Feb;104 Suppl 1:S81-9. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301544.

Witt WP., et al., Preterm birth in the United States: the impact of stressful life events prior to conception and maternal age., Am J Public Health. 2014 Feb;104 Suppl 1:S73-80. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301688.


Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy

Keywords: antiepileptics, pregnancy, antidepressants, acetaminophen, NSAIDs, opioids, narcotics, ADHD, bipolar, SSRIs, psychotropic

Steinhorn RH., Neonatal Pulmonary Hypertension., Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar; 11(2 Suppl): S79–S84. doi:  10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181c76cdc

Byatt N., et al., Antidepressant use in pregnancy: a critical review focused on risks and controversies., Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2013 Feb;127(2):94-114. doi: 10.1111/acps.12042. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

Gentile S., Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure during early pregnancy and the risk of birth defects., Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011 Apr;123(4):266-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01673.x. Epub 2011 Jan 25.

Grzeskowiak LE., et al., Investigating outcomes following the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for treating depression in pregnancy: a focus on methodological issues. Drug Saf. 2011 Nov 1;34(11):1027-48. doi: 10.2165/11593130-000000000-00000.

Hemels ME., et al., Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the rates of spontaneous abortions: a meta-analysis., Ann Pharmacother. 2005 May;39(5):803-9. Epub 2005 Mar 22.

Jimenez-Solem E., et al., Exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the risk of congenital malformations: a nationwide cohort study., BMJ Open. 2012 Jun 18;2(3). pii: e001148. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001148. Print 2012.

Kieviet N., et al., The use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy: how about the newborn?, Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:1257-66. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S36394. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Louik C., et al., First-trimester use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and the risk of birth defects., N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 28;356(26):2675-83.

Nikfar S., et al., Increasing the risk of spontaneous abortion and major malformations in newborns following use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis., Daru. 2012 Nov 1;20(1):75. doi: 10.1186/2008-2231-20-75.

Olivier JD., et al., The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring., Front Cell Neurosci. 2013 May 21;7:73. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2013.00073. eCollection 2013.

Ornoy A, Koren G, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in human pregnancy: on the way to resolving the controversy., Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Jun;19(3):188-94. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2013.11.007. Epub 2013 Dec 8.

Patil AS., et al., Antidepressants in pregnancy: a review of commonly prescribed medications., Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2011 Dec;66(12):777-87. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e31823e0cbf.

Ross LE., et al., Selected pregnancy and delivery outcomes after exposure to antidepressant medication: a systematic review and meta-analysis., JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Apr;70(4):436-43. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.684.

‘t Jong GW., et al., Antidepressant use in pregnancy and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN): a systematic review., Reprod Toxicol. 2012 Nov;34(3):293-7. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.04.015. Epub 2012 May 5.

Tuccori M., et al., Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of major and cardiovascular malformations: an update., Postgrad Med. 2010 Jul;122(4):49-65. doi: 10.3810/pgm.2010.07.2175.

Udechuku A., et al., Antidepressants in pregnancy: a systematic review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry., 2010 Nov;44(11):978-96. doi: 10.3109/00048674.2010.507543.

Wisner KL., et al., Major depression and antidepressant treatment: impact on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes., Am J Psychiatry. 2009 May;166(5):557-66. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08081170. Epub 2009 Mar 16.


Sex During Pregnancy: Can You Do It? Do You Want To?

Keywords: Sex during pregnancy, intercourse during pregnancy

Chang SR, et al., Comparison of overall sexual function, sexual intercourse/activity, sexual satisfaction, and sexual desire during the three trimesters of pregnancy and assessment of their determinants., J Sex Med. 2011 Oct;8(10):2859-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02420.x. Epub 2011 Aug 3.

Chang SR, et al., Depressive symptoms as a predictor of sexual function during pregnancy.,  J Sex Med. 2012 Oct;9(10):2582-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02874.x. Epub 2012 Aug 15.

Corbacioglu EA, et al., Female sexual function and associated factors during pregnancy., J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013 Jun;39(6):1165-72. doi: 10.1111/jog.12048. Epub 2013 May 30

Corbacioglu EA, et al., The role of pregnancy awareness on female sexual function in early gestation., J Sex Med. 2012 Jul;9(7):1897-903. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02740.x. Epub 2012 Apr 23.

Kavanagh J, et al., Sexual intercourse for cervical ripening and induction of labour., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(2):CD003093.

Schaffir J., Sexual intercourse at term and onset of labor., Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jun;107(6):1310-4

Tan PC, et al., Effect of coitus at term on length of gestation, induction of labor, and mode of delivery., Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jul;108(1):134-40.


Alcohol and Caffeine: To Drink or Not to Drink

Keywords: alcohol, pregnancy, caffeine, fetal alcohol syndrome, congenital malformations, birth defects, outcomes, cannabis, teratogenic


Cheng J., et al., Maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy and risk of childhood acute leukemia: a metaanalysis., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Feb;210(2):151.e1-151.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.09.026. Epub 2013 Sep 20.

Greenwood DC., et al., Caffeine intake during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis., Eur J Epidemiol. 2014 Oct;29(10):725-34. doi: 10.1007/s10654-014-9944-x. Epub 2014 Sep 2.

Maslova E., et al., Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis., Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov;92(5):1120-32. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29789. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Savitz DA., et al., Caffeine and miscarriage risk., Epidemiology., 2008 Jan;19(1):55-62.

Sengpiel V., et al., Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study., BMC Medicine 2013, 11:42  doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-42

Weng X., et al., Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Mar;198(3):279.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.10.803. Epub 2008 Jan 25.



Alati R., et al., Effect of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Childhood Academic Outcomes: Contrasting Maternal and Paternal Associations in the ALSPAC Study, PLOS One DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074844

Alati R., et al., Intrauterine Exposure to Alcohol and Tobacco Use and Childhood IQ: Findings from a Parental-Offspring Comparison within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Pediatric Research (2008) 64, 659–666; doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e318187cc31

Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, Tracking the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure through to 9 years of age, August 15, 2012.

Å Skogerbø., et al., The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children BJOG 0 JUN 2012 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03397.x

Bailey BA., Sokol RJ., Prenatal alcohol exposure and miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome., Alcohol Res Health. 2011;34(1):86-91.

Day NL., et al., The Association Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Behavior at 22 Years of Age, Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Jul;37(7):1171-8. doi: 10.1111/acer.12073. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Day NL., et al., The association between prenatal alcohol exposure and behavior at 22 years of age. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Jul;37(7):1171-8. doi: 10.1111/acer.12073. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Eckstrand KL., et al., Persistent dose-dependent changes in brain structure in young adults with low-to-moderate alcohol exposure in utero., Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Nov;36(11):1892-902. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01819.x. Epub 2012 May 17.

Falgreen Eriksen HL., et al., Low/moderate drinking in early pregnancy has no adverse effects on children aged 5, BJOG. 2012 Sep; 119(10): 1191–1200.

Falgreen Eriksen HL., et al., The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children., BJOG. 2012 Sep;119(10):1191-200. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03394.x. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Feldman HS, et al., Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Patterns and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Growth Deficiencies: A Prospective Study, Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Apr;36(4):670-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01664.x. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Flak AL, et al., The association of mild, moderate, and binge prenatal alcohol exposure and child neuropsychological outcomes: a meta-analysis., Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jan;38(1):214-26. doi: 10.1111/acer.12214. Epub 2013 Aug 1.

Gray R., Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and child development–moving beyond observational studies., BJOG. 2013 Aug;120(9):1039-41. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12211.

Henderson J., et al., Systematic review of effects of low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on pregnancy outcome., BJOG. 2007 Mar;114(3):243-52. Epub 2007 Jan 12.

Hepper PG., et al., Fetal Brain Function in Response to Maternal Alcohol Consumption: Early Evidence of Damage, Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Dec;36(12):2168-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01832.x. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Humphriss R., et al., Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood balance ability:findings from a UK birth cohort study, BMJ Open 2013;3:e002718 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002718

Jacobson SW., et al., Commentary on Day and colleagues (2013): The association between prenatal alcohol exposure and behavior at 22 years of age—Adverse effects of risky patterns of drinking among low to moderate alcohol-using pregnant women, Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Jul;37(7):1069-73. doi: 10.1111/acer.12203.

Kelly YJ., et al., Light drinking during pregnancy: still no increased risk for socioemotional difficulties or cognitive deficits at 5 years of age?, J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Jan;66(1):41-8. doi: 10.1136/jech.2009.103002. Epub 2010 Oct 5.

Kelly YJ., et al., Light drinking versus abstinence in pregnancy – behavioural and cognitive outcomes in 7-year-old children: a longitudinal cohort study., BJOG. 2013 Oct;120(11):1340-7. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12246. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Kesmodel U., et al., Moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal death, Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Feb 15;155(4):305-12.

Kesmodel US., et al., The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children., BJOG. 2012 Sep;119(10):1222-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03395.x. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Kesmodel US., et al., The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid-pregnancy, BJOG. 2012 Sep;119(10):1180-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03393.x. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Kesmodel US., et al., The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child’s intelligence, attention, and executive function., BJOG. 2012 Sep;119(10):1180-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03393.x. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Kodituwakku PW, Ceccanti M., Are children born to light drinkers not at high risk of developing clinically relevant cognitive-behavioural problems?, A response to Kelly et al. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;39(2):635-7. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyp003. Epub 2009 Feb 3.

Lebel C, et al., A Longitudinal Study of the Long-Term Consequences of Drinking during Pregnancy: Heavy In Utero Alcohol Exposure Disrupts the Normal Processes of Brain Development, J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 31;32(44):15243-51. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1161-12.2012.

Lewis SJ., et al., Fetal Alcohol Exposure and IQ at Age 8: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth-Cohort Study, PLOS One DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049407

Mukherjee AB, Hodgen GD., Maternal ethanol exposure induces transient impairment of umbilical circulation and fetal hypoxia in monkeys, Science. 1982 Nov 12;218(4573):700-2.

Niclasen J., Drinking or not drinking in pregnancy: the multiplicity of confounding influences., Alcohol Alcohol. 2014 May-Jun;49(3):349-55. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agt141. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Nilsson JP., Does a pint a day affect your child’s pay? The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on adult outcomes, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies in its series CeMMAP working papers with number CWP22/08.

O’Callaghan FV, et al., Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention, learning and intellectual ability at 14 years: A prospective longitudinal study, Early Hum Dev. 2007 Feb;83(2):115-23. Epub 2006 Jul 12.

O’Leary CM, et al., Maternal Alcohol Use and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Infant Mortality Excluding SIDS, Pediatrics. 2013 Mar;131(3):e770-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1907. Epub 2013 Feb 25.

O’Leary CM, et al., Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Language Delay in 2-Year-Old Children: The Importance of Dose and Timing on Risk, Pediatrics. 2009 Feb;123(2):547-54. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-0459.

O’Leary CM., et al., Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Educational Achievement in Children Aged 8 –9 Years, Pediatrics July 2013

Parker MO., Brennan CH., Low and moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy: effects on social behaviour and propensity to develop substance abuse in later life, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Volume 119, Issue 13, pages 1671–1672, December 2012

Patra J., et al., Dose–response relationship between alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy and the risks of low birthweight, preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA)—a systematic review and meta-analyses, BJOG. 2011 Nov;118(12):1411-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03050.x. Epub 2011 Jul 6.

Powell G., Danish studies suggesting low and moderate prenatal alcohol exposure has no adverse effects on children aged 5 years did not use appropriate or effective measures of executive functioning, BJOG. 2012 Dec;119(13):1669-70. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12005.

Robinson M., et al., Low–moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and risk to child behavioural development: a prospective cohort study, BJOG. 2010 Aug;117(9):1139-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02596.x. Epub 2010 May 28.

Robinson M., et al., Low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and risk to child behavioural development: a prospective cohort study., BJOG. 2010 Aug;117(9):1139-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02596.x. Epub 2010 May 28.

Sayal K., Commentary: Light drinking in pregnancy: can a glass or two hurt?, Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Feb;38(1):140-2. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyn370.

Sayal K., et al., Light drinking in pregnancy and mid-childhood mental health and learning outcomes, Arch Dis Child. 2013 Feb;98(2):107-11. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-302436.

Sayal K., et al., Prenatal alcohol exposure and gender differences in childhood mental health problems: a longitudinal population-based study., Pediatrics. 2007 Feb;119(2):e426-34.

Skogerbø Å, et al., The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children*, BJOG. 2012 Sep;119(10):1201-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03397.x. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Sood B., et al., Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood behavior at age 6 to 7 years: I. dose-response effect., Pediatrics. 2001 Aug;108(2):E34.

Stene-Larsen K., et al., Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy, Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behaviors, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica (Impact Factor: 2.43). 10/2013; 92(12). DOI: 10.1111/aogs.12259.

Todorow M., et al., Child behaviour following low to moderate maternal drinking in pregnancy, BJOG. 2010 Nov;117(12):1563-4; author reply 1564-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02716.x.

Todorow M., et al., Investigating the effects of low to moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure on child behaviour: a critical review., J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Summer;17(2):e323-30. Epub 2010 Oct 18.

Underbjerg M, et al., The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children, BJOG. 2012 Sep;119(10):1211-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03396.x. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Zuccolo L, et al., Table S1. Association Between Alcohol Consumption Before, During Pregnancy (in First Trimester) and After Pregnancy (8 Months Post-Delivery), and the Rs1229984 Rare Allele ( ADH1B) Among ALSPAC Mothers – Dominant Effect. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, 1991 –1992. Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Oct; 42(5): 1358–1370. Published online 2013 Sep 24. doi:  10.1093/ije/dyt172




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Kitty Litter, Sushi, and Brie: Understanding Environmental Exposure Risks

Keywords: pregnancy, flight, air travel, hot yoga, venous thrombosis, thromboembolism, toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, foodborne illness, ducosahexaenoic acid, mercury, diving, scuba

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It’s Getting Hot in Here

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Dadvand P., et al., Climate extremes and the length of gestation., Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Oct;119(10):1449-53. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003241. Epub 2011 Jun 9.

Moretti ME., et al., Maternal hyperthermia and the risk for neural tube defects in offspring: systematic review and meta-analysis., Epidemiology. 2005 Mar;16(2):216-9.

Suarez L., et al., The effect of fever, febrile illnesses, and heat exposures on the risk of neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2004 Oct;70(10):815-9.


Leaving on a Jet Plane

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Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR., Pregnancy and travel-related thromboembolism., Thromb Res. 2013 Jan;131 Suppl 1:S55-8. doi: 10.1016/S0049-3848(13)70023-9.

Chandra D., et al., Meta-analysis: travel and risk for venous thromboembolism., Ann Intern Med. 2009 Aug 4;151(3):180-90. Epub 2009 Jul 6.

Freeman M., et al., Does air travel affect pregnancy outcome?, Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004 May;269(4):274-7. Epub 2003 Dec 20.

James AH., et al., Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum period: incidence, risk factors, and mortality., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May;194(5):1311-5. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

Kuipers S., et al., The risk of venous thrombosis after air travel: contribution of clinical risk factors., Br J Haematol. 2014 May;165(3):412-3. doi: 10.1111/bjh.12724. Epub 2014 Jan

Magann EF., et al., Air travel and pregnancy outcomes: a review of pregnancy regulations and outcomes for passengers, flight attendants, and aviators., Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2010 Jun;65(6):396-402. doi: 10.1097/OGX.0b013e3181e572ae.


To Dye or Not to Dye

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Nohynek GJ., et al., Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes., Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 Apr;42(4):517-43.

Rylander L, Reproductive outcome among female hairdressers., Occup Environ Med. Aug 2002; 59(8): 517–522.


Toxoplasmosis: Cats, Gardens, Meat, Sandboxes, and Other Parasite Reservoirs

Cook AJ., et al., Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control study. European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis. BMJ. 2000 Jul 15;321(7254):142-7.

Jones JL., et al., Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States., Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 15;49(6):878-84. doi: 10.1086/605433.

Massie GN., et al., Uptake and transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by migratory, filter-feeding fish., Vet Parasitol. 2010 May 11;169(3-4):296-303. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.01.002. Epub 2010 Jan 7.

Omata Y. et al., Toxoplasma gondii does not persist in goldfish (Carassius auratus)., J Parasitol. 2005 Dec;91(6):1496-9.

Rorman E., et al., Congenital toxoplasmosis–prenatal aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Reprod Toxicol. 2006 May;21(4):458-72. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Torrey EF, Yolken RH., Toxoplasma oocysts as a public health problem., Trends Parasitol. 2013 Aug;29(8):380-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2013.06.001. Epub 2013 Jul 9.


Listeriosis: The Culprit in Soft Cheeses, Deli Meats… and Almost Anything Else You Can Eat

CDC, Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado, CDC.gov, Outbreak Highlights, August 27, 2012 (FINAL Update Addendum).

Charlier-Woerther C, Lecuit M., Listeriosis and pregnancy. Presse Med. 2014 Jun;43(6 Pt 1):676-82. doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2014.03.006. Epub 2014 May 14.

Jackson KA., et al., Pregnancy-associated listeriosis,. Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Oct;138(10):1503-9. doi: 10.1017/S0950268810000294. Epub 2010 Feb 17.

Janakiraman,V., Listeriosis in pregnancy: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention., Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Fall; 1(4): 179–185.

Lamont RF., et al., Listeriosis in Human Pregnancy: a systematic review., J Perinat Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC Mar 10, 2013.

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Thanks for All the Fish!

Butt AA., et al., Infections related to the ingestion of seafood Part I: Viral and bacterial infections. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Apr;4(4):201-12.

Butt AA., et al., Infections related to the ingestion of seafood. Part II: parasitic infections and food safety. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 May;4(5):294-300.

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Maternal Hypertension and Pre-Eclampsia

Keywords: pregnancy-related hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome

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Costantine MM, et al., Pravastatin for the prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk pregnant women., Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Feb;121(2 Pt 1):349-53. doi: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e31827d8ad5.

Duley L, et al., Antiplatelet agents for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications., Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Published Online: 18 APR 2007 Assessed as up-to-date: 6 FEB 2007 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004659.pub2

Henderson JT, et al., Low-dose aspirin for prevention of morbidity and mortality from preeclampsia: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force., Ann Intern Med. 2014 May 20;160(10):695-703. doi: 10.7326/M13-2844.

Hofmeyr G, et al., Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD001059. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001059.pub4

Macdonald-Wallis C, et al., Gestational weight gain as a risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Oct;209(4):327.e1-17. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.05.042. Epub 2013 May 24.

Meher S, Duley L., Exercise or other physical activity for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005942.

Meher S, Duley L., Nitric oxide for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD006490.

Meher S, Duley L. Rest during pregnancy for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications in women with normal blood pressure., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005939.

Rumbold A, et al., Antioxidants for preventing pre-eclampsia., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004227. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004227.pub3

Schoenaker DA, et al., The association between dietary factors and gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies., BMC Medicine2014;12(1):157. doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0157-7.