February 9, 2016

Chapter 3 References

Delivery Day Around the Corner

Home Truths About Home Birth

Keywords: home birth, direct-entry midwife, certified nurse midwife (CNM), certified professional midwife (CPM), birth center, primapara, multipara 

Brown T., Neonatal mortality risk increased for home midwife births., Neonatal Mortality Risk Increased for Home Midwife Births. Medscape. Apr 03, 2014.

Cheyney M, et al., Outcomes of care for 16,984 planned home births in the United States: The Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project, 2004-2009., J Midwifery Womens Health. 2014 Jan-Feb;59(1):17-27. doi: 10.1111/jmwh.12172. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

Grünebaum A, et al., Early and total neonatal mortality in relation to birth setting in the United States, 2006-2009., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Oct;211(4):390.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.03.047. Epub 2014 Mar 21.

Haiken, M. What is an episiotomy?, HealthDay. March 11, 2014. Accessed February 2015.

Janssen PA, et al., Outcomes of planned home birth with registered midwife versus planned hospital birth with midwife or physician., CMAJ. 2009 Sep; 181(6-7): 377–383. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.081869.

Vallee-Pouliot K, et al., Home birth study fails to identify credentials of midwives conducting home birth.,  Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Feb;212(2):253-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.10.028. Epub 2014 Oct 19.

Watterberg KL., American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement on Planned Home Birth., Committee on Fetus and Newborn.  PEDIATRICS Vol. 132 No. 5 November 1, 2013 pp. 924 -926 (doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2596).


The Placenta: Take It or Leave It

Keywords: placenta, consumption, placentophagy 

Blank MS, Friesen HG., Effects of placentophagy on serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations in rats after parturition or superovulation., J Reprod Fertil. 1980 Nov;60(2):273-8.

DiPirro JM, Kristal MB., Placenta ingestion by rats enhances delta- and kappa-opioid antinociception, but suppresses mu-opioid antinociception., Brain Res. 2004 Jul 16;1014(1-2):22-33.

Gude NM., et al., Growth and function of the normal human placenta., Thromb Res. 2004;114(5-6):397-407.

Hammett, Frederick. S. 1918. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 36. American Society of Biological Chemists, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, original press: Harvard University.

Kristal MB., Enhancement of opioid-mediated analgesia: a solution to the enigma of placentophagia., Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1991 Fall;15(3):425-35.

Kristal MB., Placentophagia: a biobehavioral enigma (or De gustibus non disputandum est)., Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1980 Summer;4(2):141-50.

McNeile, L. G. “Effect of ingestion of desiccated placenta during first 11 days of lactation, preliminary report.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children 77 (1918): 377-383.

Selander J., et al., Human maternal placentophagy: a survey of self-reported motivations and experiences associated with placenta consumption., Ecol Food Nutr. 2013;52(2):93-115. doi: 10.1080/03670244.2012.719356.

Soykova-Pachnerova E, et al., Placenta as Lactagagon., Gynaecologia.  1954 Dec;138(6):617-27.


Picking a Pediatrician

Keywords: pediatrician, attitudes, survey, beliefs 

Carbery B., et al., Need for physician education on the benefits and risks of male circumcision in the United States., AIDS Educ Prev. 2012 Aug;24(4):377-87. doi: 10.1521/aeap.2012.24.4.377.

Dillaway HE, Douma ME., Are pediatric offices “supportive” of breastfeeding? Discrepancies between mothers’ and healthcare professionals’ reports., Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2004 Jun;43(5):417-30.

Feldman-Winter LB., et al., Pediatricians and the promotion and support of breastfeeding., Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008 Dec;162(12):1142-9. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.162.12.1142.

Mangione-Smith R., et al., The relationship between perceived parental expectations and pediatrician antimicrobial prescribing behavior., Pediatrics. 1999 Apr;103(4 Pt 1):711-8.

Muller Andries J., To cut or not to cut? Personal factors influence primary care physicians’ position on elective newborn circumcision., Journal of Men’s Health. October 2010, 7(3): 227-232. doi:10.1016/j.jomh.2010.04.001.

Newman RD, Taylor JA., Reactions of pediatricians to the recommendation for universal varicella vaccination. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Aug;152(8):792-6.

Ribeiro CC, et al., Knowledge and practice of physicians and nutritionists regarding the prevention of food allergy., Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug;32(4):624-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2012.10.014. Epub 2012 Nov 5.

Schanler RJ., et al., Pediatricians’ practices and attitudes regarding breastfeeding promotion., Pediatrics. 1999 Mar;103(3):E35.


Labor Induction: From Semen to Primrose Oil and Safety Considerations

Keywords: labor induction, labor augmentation, labor pain, spinal epidural, episiotomy, Pitocin, oxytocin, saline injection, amniotomy, prostaglandins 

HartmanN et al. Outcomes of routine episiotomy: a systematic review., JAMA.2005;293(17):2141-2148.


Labor induction 

Dante G, et al., Herbal therapies in pregnancy: what works?, Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Apr;26(2):83-91. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000052.

Dugoua JJ, et al., Safety and efficacy of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Winter;15(1):e66-73. Epub 2008 Jan 18.

Finkel RS, Zirlenko KM., Blue Cohosh and Perinatal Stroke, N Engl J Med 2004; 351:302-303July 15, 2004DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200407153510323 

Gibson KS, et al., Maternal and neonatal outcomes in electively induced low-risk term pregnancies., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep;211(3):249.e1-249.e16. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.03.016. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Gülmezoglu AM, et al., Induction of labour for improving birth outcomes for women at or beyond term., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jun 13;6:CD004945. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004945.pub3.

Hall HG, et al., Complementary and alternative medicine for induction of labour., Women Birth. 2012 Sep;25(3):142-8. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2011.03.006. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Jozwiak M, et al., Mechanical methods for induction of labour., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Mar 14;3:CD001233. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001233.pub2.

Kelly AJ, et al., Castor oil, bath and/or enema for cervical priming and induction of labour., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 24;7:CD003099. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003099.pub2.

Mishanina E, et al., Use of labour induction and risk of cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis., CMAJ. 2014 Jun 10;186(9):665-73. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.130925. Epub 2014 Apr 28.

Mozurkewich E, et al., Indications for induction of labour: a best-evidence review., BJOG. 2009 Apr;116(5):626-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2008.02065.x. Epub 2009 Feb 4.

Nishi D, et al.,  Hypnosis for induction of labour., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 14;8:CD010852. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010852.pub2.

Wood S, et al., Does induction of labour increase the risk of caesarean section? A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials in women with intact membranes. BJOG. 2014 May;121(6):674-85; discussion 685. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12328. Epub 2013 Jul 3



Begley CM., Intervention or interference? The need for expectant care throughout normal labour., Sex Reprod Healthc. 2014 Dec;5(4):160-4. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2014.10.004. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Costley PL, East CE., Oxytocin augmentation of labour in women with epidural analgesia for reducing operative deliveries., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 11;7:CD009241. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009241.pub3.

Kenyon S, et al., High-dose versus low-dose oxytocin for augmentation of delayed labour., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 13;7:CD007201. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007201.pub3.

Smyth RM, et al., Amniotomy for shortening spontaneous labour., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 18;6:CD006167. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006167.pub4

Wei S, et al.,  Early amniotomy and early oxytocin for prevention of, or therapy for, delay in first stage spontaneous labour compared with routine care., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 7;8:CD006794. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006794.pub4.



Jones L, et al., Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Mar 14;3:CD009234. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2.

Derry S, et al., Intracutaneous or subcutaneous sterile water injection compared with blinded controls for pain management in labour., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;1:CD009107. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009107.pub2.


Baby’s Arrival: Cesarean and Vaginal Births

Keywords: cesarean, caesarean, ACOG, macrosomia, labor, dystocia 

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists., ACOG Practice bulletin no. 115: Vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery., Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug;116(2 Pt 1):450-63. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181eeb251.

Boyle R., et al., Pelvic floor muscle training for prevention and treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence in antenatal and postnatal women., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Oct 17;10:CD007471. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007471.pub2.

Caughey AB., et al., Safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Mar;210(3):179-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.01.026.

Gurol-Urganci I, et al., Impact of Caesarean section on subsequent fertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Hum Reprod. 2013 Jul;28(7):1943-52. doi: 10.1093/humrep/det130. Epub 2013 May 3.

Hofmeyr GJ., et al., Planned caesarean section for women with a twin pregnancy., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7;(12):CD006553. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006553.pub2

Lawrence A., et al., Maternal positions and mobility during first stage labour., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 9;10:CD003934. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003934.pub4.

Li HT., et al., The impact of cesarean section on offspring overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Jul;37(7):893-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.195. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Mørkved S, Bø K., Effect of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy and after childbirth on prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence: a systematic review., Br J Sports Med. 2014 Feb;48(4):299-310. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091758. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

O’Callaghan M, MacLennan A., Cesarean delivery and cerebral palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Dec;122(6):1169-75. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000020.

O’Neill SM., et al., Caesarean delivery and subsequent pregnancy interval: a systematic review and meta-analysis., BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013 Aug 27;13:165. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-165.

O’Neill SM, et al., Caesarean delivery and subsequent stillbirth or miscarriage: systematic review and meta-analysis., PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54588. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054588. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

O’Neill SM, et al., Caesarean section and subsequent ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis., BJOG. 2013 May;120(6):671-80. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12165. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Paganelli S., et al., Retrospective analysis on the efficacy of corticosteroid prophylaxis prior to elective caesarean section to reduce neonatal respiratory complications at term of pregnancy: review of literature., Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013 Dec;288(6):1223-9. doi: 10.1007/s00404-013-3035-1. Epub 2013 Sep 27.

Shiliang Liu, et al., Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned cesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term., CMAJ. 2007 Feb 13; 176(4): 455–460. doi:  10.1503/cmaj.060870

Sotiriadis A., et al., Corticosteroids for preventing neonatal respiratory morbidity after elective caesarean section at term., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD006614. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006614.pub2.

Wispelwey BP, Sheiner E, Cesarean delivery in obese women: a comprehensive review., J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Apr;26(6):547-51. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.745506. Epub 2012 Nov 28.


Breech position 

de Hundt M, et al., Mode of delivery after successful external cephalic version: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Jun;123(6):1327-34. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000295.

Grootscholten K, et al., External cephalic version-related risks: a meta-analysis., Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Nov;112(5):1143-51. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31818b4ade.

Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R., External cephalic version facilitation for breech presentation at term., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Oct 17;10:CD000083. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000083.pub2.


Other reasons 

Barber EL., et al., Indications contributing to the increasing cesarean delivery rate., Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jul;118(1):29-38. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31821e5f65.



Keywords: circumcision, complications, outcomes, foreskin, balanitis, urinary tract infection 

Understanding the risk–benefit analysis  

El Bcheraoui C, et al., Rates of adverse events associated with male circumcision in U.S. medical settings, 2001 to 2010., JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Jul;168(7):625-34. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5414.

Morris BJ, Wiswell TE., Circumcision and lifetime risk of urinary tract infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis., J Urol. 2013 Jun;189(6):2118-24. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.11.114. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Shaikh N, et al., Prevalence of urinary tract infection in childhood: a meta-analysis., Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Apr;27(4):302-8. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31815e4122.


What are the benefits? 

American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision., Circumcision policy statement. Pediatrics., Pediatrics. 2012 Sep;130(3):585-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1989. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Singh-Grewal D., et al., Circumcision for the prevention of urinary tract infection in boys: a systematic review of randomised trials and observational studies., Arch Dis Child. 2005 Aug;90(8):853-8. Epub 2005 May 12.


Why the controversy? 

Morris BJ, et al., Circumcision rates in the United States: rising or falling? What effect might the new affirmative pediatric policy statement have?, Mayo Clin Proc. 2014 May;89(5):677-86. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.01.001. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Sorrells ML., et al., Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis., BJU Int. 2007 Apr;99(4):864-9.

Svoboda JS, Van Howe RS., Out of step: fatal flaws in the latest AAP policy report on neonatal circumcision., J Med Ethics. 2013 Jul;39(7):434-41. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2013-101346. Epub 2013 Mar 18.


Diapers: Cloth vs. Disposable

Keywords: disposable diaper, compostable diaper, cloth diaper 

Clark-Greuel JN, et al., Setting the Record Straight on Diaper Rash and Disposable Diapers., Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2014 Jun 24;53(9 suppl):23S-26S. [Epub ahead of print]

Colón J, et al., Performance of compostable baby used diapers in the composting process with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste., Waste Manag. 2013 May;33(5):1097-103. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.01.018. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Environment Agency, UK., Life cycle assessment of disposable and reusable nappies in the UK. Accessed February 2015.

Erasala GN, et al., Diaper area and disposable diapers., Curr Probl Dermatol. 2011;40:83-9. doi: 10.1159/000321057. Epub 2011 Feb 10.

Evans EB, et al., Colors in Disposable Diapers: Addressing Myths., Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2014 Jun 24;53(9 suppl):20S-22S. [Epub ahead of print]

Kam K., Solving your diaper dilemma., WebMD. (2008; last expert review July 2013).


Breastfeeding and Bottle Feeding

Keywords: breastfeeding, lactation, lactation failure, formula, nipple confusion, otitis media, cognitive outcomes, siblings, breastmilk, human milk 

Gartner LM, et al., Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics., Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2):496-506.

Häggkvist AP, et al., Prevalence of breast-feeding in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and health service-related correlates of cessation of full breast-feeding., Public Health Nutr. 2010 Dec;13(12):2076-86. doi: 10.1017/S1368980010001771. Epub 2010 Jun 25.


Health benefits of breastfeeding: Term babies, preemies, and moms 

Colen CG, Ramey DM, Is breast truly best? Estimating the effects of breastfeeding on long-term child health and wellbeing in the United States using sibling comparisons., Soc Sci Med. 2014 May;109:55-65. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.01.027. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Dennis CL, McQueen K., The relationship between infant-feeding outcomes and postpartum depression: a qualitative systematic review., Pediatrics. 2009 Apr;123(4):e736-51. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1629.

Herrmann K, Carroll K., An exclusively human milk diet reduces necrotizing enterocolitis., Breastfeed Med. 2014 May;9(4):184-90. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2013.0121. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

Ip S, et al., Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries., Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2007 Apr;(153):1-186.

Karabulut GS, et al., The Incidence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Using the Rome III Criteria and the Effect of Trimebutine Treatment., J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013 Jan;19(1):90-3. doi: 10.5056/jnm.2013.19.1.90. Epub 2013 Jan 8.

Lakshman R, et al., Mothers’ experiences of bottle-feeding: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies., Arch Dis Child. 2009 Aug;94(8):596-601. doi: 10.1136/adc.2008.151910. Epub 2009 Jul 14.

Lee E, Health, morality, and infant feeding: British mothers’ experiences of formula milk use in the early weeks., Sociol Health Illn. 2007 Nov;29(7):1075-90.

Lee EJ, Infant feeding in risk society., Health, Risk 7 Society. 2007;9(3):295–309. doi: 10.1080/13698570701488910.

Palmér L, et al., Existential vulnerability can be evoked by severe difficulties with initial breastfeeding: a lifeworld hermeneutical single case study for research on complex breastfeeding phenomena., Breastfeed Rev. 2014 Nov;22(3):21-32.

Li R, et al., Breastfeeding and risk of infections at 6 years., Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134 Suppl 1:S13-20. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0646D

Quigley M, McGuire W., Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Apr 22;4:CD002971. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002971.pub3.

Riskin A, et al., Changes in immunomodulatory constituents of human milk in response to active infection in the nursing infant., Pediatr Res. 2012 Feb;71(2):220-5. doi: 10.1038/pr.2011.34. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Schaalan MF, et al., Correlation between maternal milk and infant serum levels of chlorinated pesticides (CP) and the impact of elevated CP on bleeding tendency and immune status in some infants in Egypt., J Immunotoxicol. 2012 Jan-Mar;9(1):15-24. doi: 10.3109/1547691X.2011.606432. Epub 2011 Sep 30.

Sullivan S, et al., An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products., J Pediatr. 2010 Apr;156(4):562-7.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.10.040. Epub 2009 Dec 29.

Vohr BR, et al., Persistent beneficial effects of breast milk ingested in the neonatal intensive care unit on outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants at 30 months of age., Pediatrics. 2007 Oct;120(4):e953-9.


Social, emotional, and cognitive development 

Isaacs EB, et al., Impact of breast milk on intelligence quotient, brain size, and white matter development., Pediatr Res. 2010 Apr;67(4):357-62. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181d026da.

Kramer MS, et al., Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child behavior and maternal adjustment: evidence from a large, randomized trial., Pediatrics. 2008 Mar;121(3):e435-40. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1248.

Kramer MS, et al., Breastfeeding and child cognitive development: new evidence from a large randomized trial., Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 May;65(5):578-84. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.5.578.

Lind JN , et al., Breastfeeding and later psychosocial development of children at 6 years of age., Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134 Suppl 1:S36-41. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0646G.


Obesity risk, self-regulation, and bottle feeding 

Arenz S, et al., Breast-feeding and childhood obesity–a systematic review., Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Oct;28(10):1247-56.

Harder T, Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis., Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Sep 1;162(5):397-403. Epub 2005 Aug 2.

Li R, et al, Association of breastfeeding intensity and bottle-emptying behaviors at early infancy with infants’ risk for excess weight at late infancy., Pediatrics. 2008 Oct;122 Suppl 2:S77-84. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1315j.

Li R, et al., Bottle-feeding practices during early infancy and eating behaviors at 6 years of age., Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134 Suppl 1:S70-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0646L.

Li R, et al., Do infants fed from bottles lack self-regulation of milk intake compared with directly breastfed infants?, Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):e1386-93. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2549. Epub 2010 May 10.

Metzger MW, McDade TW., Breastfeeding as obesity prevention in the United States: a sibling difference model., Am J Hum Biol. 2010 May-Jun;22(3):291-6. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.20982.

Michels KB, et al., A longitudinal study of infant feeding and obesity throughout life course., Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Jul;31(7):1078-85. Epub 2007 Apr 24.

Quigley MA., Re: “Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis“,  Am J Epidemiol. 2006 May 1;163(9):870-2; author reply 872-3. Epub 2006 Mar 22.


When baby feeding gets personal 

Thomson G, et al., Shame if you do – shame if you don’t: women’s experiences of infant feeding., Matern Child Nutr. 2015 Jan;11(1):33-46. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12148. Epub 2014 Aug 19.


Vaccine Schedules: One Has an Evidence Base

Keywords: vaccines, adverse events, names of vaccines?  

Common problems in evaluating vaccine studies 

Farrell DJ, Bower L, Fatal water intoxication., J Clin Pathol. 2003 Oct; 56(10): 803–804.


What was it like before vaccines? 

The protecton: the unit of humoral immunity selected by evolution., Immunol Rev. 1990 Jun;115:5-261.

van den Hof S., et al., Measles epidemic in the Netherlands, 1999-2000., J Infect Dis. 2002 Nov 15;186(10):1483-6. Epub 2002 Oct 29.


Why vaccines frighten people 

Baker JP, Mercury, Vaccines, and Autism One Controversy, Three Histories. Am J Public Health., 2008 February; 98(2): 244–253. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.113159

Boffey PM, Guillain-barre: rare disease paralyzes Swine flu campaign., Science (New York, N.Y.) 195:4274 1977 Jan 14 pg 155-9

Day A, ‘An American tragedy’. the Cutter incident and its implications for the Salk polio vaccine in New Zealand 1955-1960., Health History. 2009;11(2):42-61.

De la Herrán-Arita AK., et al., CD4+ T Cell Autoimmunity to Hypocretin/Orexin and Cross-Reactivity to a 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Epitope in Narcolepsy., Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 216ra176 (2013).

Duffy J, et al., Narcolepsy and influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 vaccination in the United States., Neurology November 11, 2014 83:20 1823-1830; published ahead of print October 15, 2014 1526-632X.

Freed GL, et al., Parental vaccine safety concerns in 2009., Pediatrics. 2010 Apr;125(4):654-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-1962. Epub 2010 Mar 1.

Miller E, et al., Risk of narcolepsy in children receiving an AS03 adjuvanted AH1N1 (2009) influenza vaccine in England., BMJ. 2013;346:f794.

Murphy TV, et al., Rotavirus Intussusception Investigation Team. Intussusception among infants given an oral rotavirus vaccine., N Engl J Med 2001; 344:564-572February 22, 2001DOI: 10.1056/NEJM200102223440804

Nohynek H, et al., AS03 adjuvanted AH1N1 vaccine associated with an abrupt increase in the incidence of childhood narcolepsy in Finland., PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33536.

Offit PA, The Cutter incident, 50 years later., N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 7;352(14):1411-2.

Partinen M, et al., Increased incidence and clinical picture of childhood narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination campaign in Finland., DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033723.

Safranek TJ, et al., Reassessment of the association between Guillain-Barré syndrome and receipt of swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977: results of a two-state study., Am J Epidemiol. 1991 May 1;133(9):940-51.

Schwartz JL, The First Rotavirus Vaccine and the Politics of Acceptable Risk., Milbank Q. Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0009.2012.00664.x

Sencer DJ, Millar JD., Reflections on the 1976 swine flu vaccination program., Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jan; 12(1): 29–33. doi:  10.3201/eid1201.051007.

Tate JE, Trends in Intussusception Hospitalizations among US Infants, 1993-2004: Implications for Monitoring the Safety of the New Rotavirus Vaccination Program., Pediatrics. 2008: 121(5), e1125-1132.

U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices , Intussusception and rotavirus vaccination: a review of the available evidence., Expert Rev Vaccines, 2009 : 8(11), 1555-1564.

Weintraub ES, et al., Risk of intussusception after monovalent rotavirus vaccination., N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 6;370(6):513-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1311738. Epub 2014 Jan 14.

Yih WK, et al., Intussusception risk after rotavirus vaccination in U.S. infants., N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 6;370(6):503-12. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1303164. Epub 2014 Jan 14.

Zanardi LR, et al., Intussusception among recipients of rotavirus vaccine: reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System., Pediatrics. 2001 Jun;107(6):E97.



Arnheim-Dahlström L, et al., Autoimmune, neurological, and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark and Sweden: cohort study., BMJ. 2013 Oct 9;347:f5906. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f5906.

Ball LK, et al., An assessment of thimerosal in childhood vaccines.m Pediatrics 2001;107:1147–1154.

Belongia EA, Naleway AL., Smallpox Vaccine: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly., Clin Med Res. 2003 Apr;1(2):87-92

Boyce JA, et al., Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel., J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Dec; 126(6 0): S1–58. doi:  10.1016/j.jaci.2010.10.007

Burbacher TM., et al., Comparison of blood and brain mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines containing thimerosal., Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):1015-21.

Chung EH, Change in gelatin content of vaccines associated with reduction in reports of allergic reactions., Clin Exp Vaccine Res. 2014 Jan; 3(1): 50–57. Published online 2013 Dec 18. doi:  10.7774/cevr.2014.3.1.50

Dempsey AF, et al, Alternative vaccination schedule preferences among parents of young children. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov;128(5):848-56. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0400. Epub 2011 Oct 3.

DeStefano F., et al., Age at first measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in children with autism and school-matched control subjects: a population-based study in metropolitan Atlanta., Pediatrics. 2004 Feb;113(2):259-66.

Ganrot PO., Metabolism and possible health effects of aluminum., Environ Health Perspect. 1986 Mar;65:363-441.

Gibbons D., et al., Interleukin-8 (CXCL8) production is a signatory T cell effector function of human newborn infants., Nat Med. 2014 Oct;20(10):1206-10. doi: 10.1038/nm.3670. Epub 2014 Sep 21.

Hambidge SJ, Timely Versus Delayed Early Childhood Vaccination and Seizures., Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1492-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3429.

Hornig M, et al., Lack of Association between Measles Virus Vaccine and Autism with Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study., PLoS ONE 3(9): e3140. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003140

Hurley AM., et al., Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism: a review of recent epidemiologic studies., J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jul;15(3):173-81.

Hviid A., et al., Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism., JAMA 2003;290:1763–6.

Kemper AR, et al., Expected adverse events in a mass smallpox vaccination campaign., Eff Clin Pract. 2002 Mar-Apr;5(2):84-90.

Klein NP., et al., Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Combination Vaccine and the Risk of Febrile Seizures., Pediatrics. 2010 Jul;126(1):e1-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0665. Epub 2010 Jun 29.

Maglione  MA., et al., Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization of US Children: A Systematic Review., Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 215. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2014 Jul. Report No.: 14-E002-EF

Mahaffey KR., Methylmercury: A new look at the risks., Public Health Reports 1999;114(5):396–399, 402–413.

McMahon AW, et al., Inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children < 2 years of age: Examination of selected adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) after thimerosal-free or thimerosal-containing vaccine., Vaccine. 2008 Jan 17;26(3):427-9. Epub 2007 Nov 29.

Offit PA. et al., Addressing Parents’ Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant’s Immune System? Pediatrics., Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):124-9.

Offit PA, Jew RK., Addressing Parents Concerns: Do Vaccines Contain Harmful Preservatives, Adjuvants, Additives or Residuals?, Pediatrics. 2003 Dec;112(6 Pt 1):1394-7.

Pichichero ME., et al., Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thimerosal: a descriptive study., Lancet. 2002 Nov 30;360(9347):1737-41.

Pichichero, et al., Mercury levels in newborns and infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines., Pediatrics 2008;121:e208-214.

Ramsay DS, Lewis M., Developmental change in infant cortisol and behavioral response to inoculation., Child Dev. 1994 Oct;65(5):1491-502.

Saiman L, et al., Persistence of Immunity to Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Adults., Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2001 May;22(5):279-83.

Sakaguchi, M, et al., Food allergy to gelatin in children with systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines., J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;98:1058-1061.

Sakaguchi M, et al., IgE-mediated systemic reactions to gelatin included in the varicella vaccine., J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99:263-264.

Sakaguchi M , et al., Minimum estimated incidence in Japan of anaphylaxis to live virus vaccines including gelatin., Vaccine 2001;19:431-436.

Slade BA, et al., Postlicensure Safety Surveillance for Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine., JAMA. 2009 Aug 19;302(7):750-7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1201.

Smith PJ , et al, Parental delay or refusal of vaccine doses, childhood vaccination coverage at 24 months of age, and the Health Belief Model., Public Health Rep. 2011 Jul-Aug;126 Suppl 2:135-46.

Smith MJ, Woods CR., On-time Vaccine Receipt in the First Year Does Not Adversely Affect Neuropsychological Outcomes., Pediatrics. 2010 Jun;125(6):1134-41. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2489. Epub 2010 May 24.

Stehr-Green P., et al., Autism and Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines, Lack of Consistent Evidence for an Association, American Journal of Preventive Medicine., Am J Prev Med. 2003 Aug;25(2):101-6.

Taylor LE., et al., Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies., Vaccine. 2014 Jun 17;32(29):3623-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. Epub 2014 May 9.

Thompson WW., et al., Early thimerosal exposure and neuropsychological outcomes at 7 to 10 Years., N Engl J Med 2007; 357:1281-1292September 27, 2007DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa071434.

Verstraeten T., et al., Safety of Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines: A Two-Phased Study of Computerized Health Maintenance Organization Databases., Pediatrics. 2003 Nov;112(5):1039-48.


Vaccines in pregnancy

Auger KA, et al., Infant Hospitalizations for Pertussis Before and After Tdap Recommendations for Adolescents., Pediatrics. 2013 Nov;132(5):e1149-55. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1747. Epub 2013 Oct 21.

Barile JP, et al., Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7-10 years later., J Pediatr Psychol. 2012 Jan-Feb;37(1):106-18. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsr048. Epub 2011 Jul 23.

Castagnini LA, et al., Impact of maternal postpartum tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis immunization on infant pertussis infection., Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 1;54(1):78-84. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir765. Epub 2011 Nov 10.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Updated Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Pregnant Women — Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012., MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Feb 22;62(7):131-5.

Chambers CD, et al., Risks and safety of pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in pregnancy: birth defects, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age infants., Vaccine. 2013 Oct 17;31(44):5026-32. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.097. Epub 2013 Sep 7.

Davidson PW, et al., Effects of prenatal and postnatal methylmercury exposure from fish consumption on neurodevelopment: outcomes at 66 months of age in the Seychelles Child Development Study., JAMA. 1998 Aug 26;280(8):701-7.

de Greeff SC, et al., Estimation of household transmission rates of pertussis and the effect of cocooning vaccination strategies on infant pertussis., Epidemiology. 2012 Nov;23(6):852-60. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31826c2b9e.

Donegan K, et al., Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: observational study., BMJ. 2014 Jul 11;349:g4219. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g4219.

Fell DB, et al., H1N1 influenza vaccination during pregnancy and fetal and neonatal outcomes., Am J Public Health. 2012 Jun;102(6):e33-40. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300606. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Håberg SE, et al., Risk of fetal death after pandemic influenza virus infection or vaccination., N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 24;368(4):333-40. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1207210. Epub 2013 Jan 16.

Holt PG, Jones CA., The development of the immune system during pregnancy and early life. Allergy. 2000 Aug;55(8):688-97.

Kharbanda EO, et al., Evaluation of the Association of Maternal Pertussis Vaccination With Obstetric Events and Birth Outcomes., JAMA. 2014 Nov 12;312(18):1897-904. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.14825.

Klein NP, et al., Comparative effectiveness of acellular versus whole-cell pertussis vaccines in teenagers., Pediatrics. 2013 Jun;131(6):e1716-22. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-3836. Epub 2013 May 20.

Klein NP, et al., Waning protection after fifth dose of acellular pertussis vaccine in children., N Engl J Med. 2012 Sep 13;367(11):1012-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1200850.

Legge A, et al., Rates and determinants of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnancy and association with neonatal outcomes., CMAJ. 2014 Mar 4;186(4):E157-64. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.130499. Epub 2014 Jan 6.

Munoz FM, et al., Safety and Immunogenicity of Tetanus Diphtheria and Acellular Pertussis (Tdap) Immunization During Pregnancy in Mothers and Infants., JAMA. 2014 May 7;311(17):1760-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.3633.

Nordin JD, et al., Maternal safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in pregnant women., Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Mar;121(3):519-25. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182831b83.

Parboosing R, et al., Gestational Influenza and Bipolar Disorder in Adult Offspring., JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(7):677-685. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.896.

Pichichero ME., et al., Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thimerosal: a descriptive study., Lancet. 2002 Nov 30;360(9347):1737-41.

Price CS., et al., Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism., Pediatrics. 2010 Oct;126(4):656-64. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0309. Epub 2010 Sep 13.

Quinn HE, et al., Parental Tdap Boosters and Infant Pertussis: A Case-Control Study., Pediatrics. 2014 Oct;134(4):713-20. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1105. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

Steinhoff MC, et al., Neonatal outcomes after influenza immunization during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial., CMAJ. 2012 Apr 3;184(6):645-53. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.110754. Epub 2012 Feb 21.

Tartof SY, et al., Waning immunity to pertussis following 5 doses of DTaP., Pediatrics. 2013 Apr;131(4):e1047-52. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1928. Epub 2013 Mar 11.

van Santen KL, et al., Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants by maternal influenza vaccination status., Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Nov;32(11):1180-4. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a26752.


“I Want to Bank Your (Cord) Blood”

Keywords: cord blood banking, stem cell transplantation 

Chang Y, et al., Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Rats. Cell Transplantation. 2011;18:869-886.

Committee on Obstetric Practice; Committee on Genetics., Umbilical Cord Blood Banking, Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Feb;111(2 Pt 1):475-7. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318166603c.

Forraz N, McGuckin CP. The umbilical cord: a rich and ethical stem cell source to advance regenerative medicine., Cell Prolif. 2011 Apr;44 Suppl 1:60-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2184.2010.00729.x.

Johnson FL, Placental blood transplantation and autologous banking–caveat emptor., J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1997 May-Jun;19(3):183-6.

Jung KH, et al., Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve glucose homeostasis in rats with liver cirrhosis., International Journal of Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.03). 07/2011; 39(1):137-43. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2011.1016.

Kang EJ, et al., Transplantation of porcine umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease., J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 7: 169–182. doi: 10.1002/term.504

Lin YC, et al., Human Umbilical Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Recovery After Ischemic Stroke., Stroke. 2011 Jul;42(7):2045-53. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.603621. Epub 2011 May 12.

Liu YC, et al., Therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis., Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2010;12:R210 doi:10.1186/ar3187.

Lubin BH, et al., Cord Blood Banking for Potential Future Transplantation., Pediatrics. 2007 Jan;119(1):165-70.

Nietfeld JJ, et al., Lifetime probabilities of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the US, Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2008 March; 14(3): 316–322. doi:  10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.12.493

Revoltella RP, et al., Cochlear repair by transplantation of human cord blood CD133+ cells to nod-scid mice made deaf with kanamycin and noise., Cell Transplant. 2008;17(6):665-678.

Sodian R, et al., Use of human umbilical cord blood-derived progenitor cells for tissue-engineered heart valves., Ann Thorac Surg. 2010 Mar;89(3):819-28. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.11.058.