February 9, 2016

Chapter 4 References

The Birth Day  

How Important are Apgars?

Keywords: Apgar, 1-minute Apgar, 5-minute Apgar, long-term outcome

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists., The Apgar Score. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 333. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107:1209–12.  

Montgomery KS., Apgar Scores: Examining the Long-term Significance., J Perinat Educ. 2000 Summer; 9(3): 5–9. doi:  10.1624/105812400X87716


About Baby Weight

Aarnoudse-Moens CS, et al., Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children., Pediatrics. 2009 Aug;124(2):717-28. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-2816. Epub 2009 Jul 27.

Boulet SL, et al., Birth weight and health and developmental outcomes in US children, 1997-2005., Matern Child Health J. 2011 Oct;15(7):836-44. doi: 10.1007/s10995-009-0538-2.

Esakoff TF, et al., The association between birthweight 4000 g or greater and perinatal outcomes in patients with and without gestational diabetes mellitus., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jun;200(6):672.e1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2009.02.035. Epub 2009 Apr 18.

Pasupathy D, et al., Perinatal outcomes in large infants using customised birthweight centiles and conventional measures of high birthweight., Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012 Nov;26(6):543-52. doi: 10.1111/ppe.12002.

Risnes KR, et al., Birthweight and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun;40(3):647-61. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyq267. Epub 2011 Feb 15.

Rossi AC, et al., Prevention, management, and outcomes of macrosomia: a systematic review of literature and meta-analysis., Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2013 Oct;68(10):702-9. doi: 10.1097/01.ogx.0000435370.74455.a8.

Urquia ML, Ray JG., Seven caveats on the use of low birthweight and related indicators in health research., J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Nov;66(11):971-5. doi: 10.1136/jech-2011-200772. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Weissmann-Brenner A, et al., Maternal and neonatal outcomes of large for gestational age pregnancies., Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Jul;91(7):844-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01412.x. Epub 2012 Apr 30.


Birth Practices: Vitamin K, Eye Drops, and Cord Clamping

Keywords: vitamin K injection, prophylaxis, vitamin K deficiency bleeding, erythromycin, delayed cord clamping

Vitamin K: The Shot You Don’t Want to Skip

Ekelund H., et al., Administration of vitamin K to newborn infants and childhood cancer. BMJ. 1993 Jul 10;307(6896):89-91.

Eventov-Friedman S, et al., Parents’ knowledge and perceptions regarding vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns., J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013 Jul;35(5):409-13. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e318279e509.

Fear NT, et al., Vitamin K and childhood cancer: a report from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study., Br J Cancer. 2003 Oct 6; 89(7): 1228–1231.  Published online 2003 Sep 30. doi:  10.1038/sj.bjc.6601278

Golding J, et al., Childhood cancer, intramuscular vitamin K, and pethidine given during labour. BMJ. 1992 Aug 8;305(6849):341-6.

Klebanoff MA, et al., The risk of childhood cancer after neonatal exposure to vitamin K., N Engl J Med. 1993 Sep 23;329(13):905-8.

Lippi G, Franchini M, Vitamin K in neonates: facts and myths., Blood Transfus. 2011 Jan; 9(1): 4–9. doi:  10.2450/2010.0034-10

Puckett RM, Offringa M., Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates., CochraneDatabase Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD002776.  

Sahni V, et al., Neonatal Vitamin K Refusal and Nonimmunization., Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134(3):497-503. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1092. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Shearer MJ, Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in early infancy., Blood Rev. 2009 Mar;23(2):49-59. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2008.06.001. Epub 2008 Sep 19.

Van Winckel M, et al., Vitamin K, an update for the paediatrician., Eur J Pediatr. 2009 Feb;168(2):127-34. doi: 10.1007/s00431-008-0856-1. Epub 2008 Nov 4.

Vitamin K Ad Hoc Task Force, Controversies Concerning Vitamin K and the Newborn., Pediatrics. 1993 May;91(5):1001-3.

Zipursky A, Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborns., Br J Haematol. 1999 Mar;104(3):430-7.


Eye Drops

Ali Z, Prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum comparison of betadine, erythromycin and no prophylaxis. J Trop Pediatr. 2007 Dec;53(6):388-92. Epub 2007 Nov 30.

Blatt AJ. Chlamydial and gonococcal testing during pregnancy in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Jul;207(1):55.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.04.027. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Chen JY. Prophylaxis of ophthalmia neonatorum: comparison of silver nitrate, tetracycline, erythromycin and no prophylaxis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1992 Dec;11(12):1026-30.

Darling EK, McDonald H. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ocular prophylactic agents used for the prevention of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2010 Jul-Aug;55(4):319-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.09.003.

Hammerschlag MR, et al. Erythromycin ointment for ocular prophylaxis of neonatal chlamydial infection. JAMA. 1980 Nov 21;244(20):2291-3.

Hammerschlag MR, et al. Efficacy of neonatal ocular prophylaxis for the prevention of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis. N Engl J Med. 1989 Mar 23;320(12):769-72.

Isenberg SJ, et al. A controlled trial of povidone-iodine as prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 2;332(9):562-6.

Schaller UC, Klauss V. Is Credé’s prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum still valid? Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(3):262-3.

Standler, R. B. Statutory law in the USA: requiring silver nitrate in eyes of newborns. 2006.


Cord Clamping

Andersson O, et al., Effects of delayed compared with early umbilical cord clamping on maternal postpartum hemorrhage and cord blood gas sampling: a randomized trial., Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013 May;92(5):567-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01530.x. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

Andersson O, et al., Effect of delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping on neonatal outcomes and iron status at 4 months: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ2011; 343 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d7157 (Published 15 November 2011)Cite this as: BMJ 2011;343:d7157.  

Andersson O, et al., Effect of delayed vs early umbilical cord clamping on iron status and neurodevelopment at age 12 months: a randomized clinical trial., JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Jun;168(6):547-54. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4639.

Baenziger O, et al., The influence of the timing of cord clamping on postnatal cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates: a randomized, controlled trial., Pediatrics. 2007 Mar;119(3):455-9.

Baker RD, et al., Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0-3 years of age)., Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):1040-50. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2576. Epub 2010 Oct 5.

Carter RC, et al., Iron deficiency anemia and cognitive function in infancy., Pediatrics. 2010 Aug;126(2):e427-34. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2097. Epub 2010 Jul 26.

Ceriani Cernadas JM, et al., The effect of early and delayed umbilical cord clamping on ferritin levels in term infants at six months of life: a randomized, control trial., Arch Argent Pediatr. 2010 Jun;108(3):201-8. doi: 10.1590/S0325-00752010000300005.

Ceriani Cernadas JM, et al., The Effect of Timing of Cord Clamping on Neonatal Venous Hematocrit Values and Clinical Outcome at Term: A Randomized, Controlled Trial., Pediatrics. 2006 Apr;117(4):e779-86. Epub 2006 Mar 27.

Chaparro CM, et al., Early umbilical cord clamping contributes to elevated blood lead levels among infants with higher lead exposure., J Pediatr. 2007 Nov;151(5):506-12. Epub 2007 Sep 17.

Chaparro CM, Timing of umbilical cord clamping: effect on iron endowment of the newborn and later iron status., Nutr Rev. 2011 Nov;69 Suppl 1:S30-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00430.x.

Díaz-Castro J, et al., The Timing of Cord Clamping and Oxidative Stress in Term Newborns., Pediatrics. 2014 Aug;134(2):257-64. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3798. Epub 2014 Jul 14.

Garofalo M, Abenhaim HA., Early versus delayed cord clamping in term and preterm births: a review., J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2012 Jun;34(6):525-31.

Hutton EK, Hassan ES., Late vs early clamping of the umbilical cord in full-term neonates: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials., JAMA. 2007 Mar 21;297(11):1241-52.

McAdams RM, Time to Implement Delayed Cord Clamping., Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Mar;123(3):549-52. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000122.

McDonald SJ, et al., Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 11;7:CD004074. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004074.pub3.

Mercer JS, Erickson-Owens DA., Rethinking Placental Transfusion and Cord Clamping Issues., J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2012 Jul-Sep;26(3):202-17; quiz 218-9. doi: 10.1097/JPN.0b013e31825d2d9a.

Mercer JS, et al., Delayed Cord Clamping in Very Preterm Infants Reduces the Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Late-Onset Sepsis: A Randomized, Controlled Trial., Pediatrics. 2006 Apr; 117(4): 1235–1242. doi:  10.1542/peds.2005-1706

Mercer JS, et al., Seven-month developmental outcomes of very low birth weight infants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of delayed versus immediate cord clamping., J Perinatol. 2010 Jan;30(1):11-6. doi: 10.1038/jp.2009.170. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

Rabe H, et al., A systematic review and meta-analysis of a brief delay in clamping the umbilical cord of preterm infants., Neonatology. 2008;93(2):138-44. Epub 2007 Sep 21.


Parent–Baby Separation

Keywords: post-delivery recovery, skin-to-skin contact, kangaroo care, mother-baby separation

American Academy of Pediatrics., Sample Hospital Breastfeeding Policy for Newborns., Accessed February 2015.  

Bystrova K, et al., Early contact versus separation: effects on mother-infant interaction one year later., Birth. 2009 Jun;36(2):97-109. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-536X.2009.00307.x.  

Jaafar SH, et al., Separate care for new mother and infant versus rooming-in for increasing the duration of breastfeeding., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD006641. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006641.pub2.  

Moore ER, et al.,  Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants., The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2012;5:CD003519. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003519.pub3.  

Olza Fernández I, et al.,  Mode of delivery may influence neonatal responsiveness to maternal separation., Early Hum Dev. 2013 May;89(5):339-42. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.11.005. Epub 2012 Dec 21.   


Getting Over Baby Bonding Guilt

Keywords: maternal bonding, maternal attachment

Bernier A, et al., My mother is sensitive, but I am too tired to know: Infant sleep as a moderator of prospective relations between maternal sensitivity and infant outcomes., Infant Behav Dev. 2014 Nov;37(4):682-94. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.08.011. Epub 2014 Sep 20.

Bordeleau S, et al., Maternal sensitivity and children’s behavior problems: examining the moderating role of infant sleep duration., J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2012;41(4):471-81. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2012.686101. Epub 2012 May 29.

Crouch M, Manderson L., The social life of bonding theory., Soc Sci Med. 1995 Sep;41(6):837-44.

Fearon RP et al., The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children’s externalizing behavior: a meta-analytic study., Child Dev. 2010 Mar-Apr;81(2):435-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01405.x.

Feldman R, et al., Evidence for a neuroendocrinological foundation of human affiliation: plasma oxytocin levels across pregnancy and the postpartum period predict mother-infant bonding. Psychol Sci. 2007 Nov;18(11):965-70.

Galbally M, et al., The role of oxytocin in mother-infant relations: a systematic review of human studies., Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2011 Jan-Feb;19(1):1-14. doi: 10.3109/10673229.2011.549771.

Gordon I, et al., Oxytocin, cortisol, and triadic family interactions., Physiol Behav. 2010 Dec 2;101(5):679-84. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.08.008. Epub 2010 Aug 17.

Kochanska G, Kim S., Early attachment organization with both parents and future behavior problems: from infancy to middle childhood., Child Dev. 2013 Jan-Feb;84(1):283-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01852.x. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Kochanska G, Kim S, Toward a new understanding of legacy of early attachments for future antisocial trajectories: evidence from two longitudinal studies., Dev Psychopathol. 2012 Aug; 24(3): 783–806.doi:  10.1017/S0954579412000375

Lozoff B, et al., The mother-newborn relationship: limits of adaptability., J Pediatr. 1977 Jul;91(1):1-12.

Moran G, et al., Both maternal sensitivity and atypical maternal behavior independently predict attachment security and disorganization in adolescent mother-infant relationships., Infant Behav Dev. 2008 Apr;31(2):321-5. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2007.12.012. Epub 2008 Feb 20.

Nemsadze K, Silagava M., Neuroendocrine foundation of maternal-child attachment., Georgian Med News. 2010 Dec;(189):21-6.


Breastfeeding Blues

Keywords: breastfeeding, lactation failure, insufficient glandular tissue, Raynaud’s, nipple pain, thrush, DMER, mastitis, ankyloglossia, frenotomy, galactogogues, herbs in pregnancy, cannabis, alcohol, caffeine, lactation

Ahluwalia IB, et al., Why do women stop breastfeeding? Findings from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System., Pediatrics. 2005 Dec;116(6):1408-12.

Britton C, et al., Support for breastfeeding mothers., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD001141.

CDC Task Force, Breastfeeding Report Card., CDC.gov

Kruse L, et al., Longitudinal patterns of breastfeeding initiation., Matern Child Health J. 2006 Jan;10(1):13-8.

Moritz ML, et al., Breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia: are we missing the diagnosis?, Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):e343-7.


No, not all women can breastfeed.

Auerbach KG., Breastfeeding fallacies: their relationship to understanding lactation., Birth. 1990 Mar;17(1):44-9.

Cross-Barnet C, et al., Long-term breastfeeding support: failing mothers in need., Matern Child Health J. 2012 Dec;16(9):1926-32. doi: 10.1007/s10995-011-0939-x.

Neifert M, et al., The influence of breast surgery, breast appearance, and pregnancy-induced breast changes on lactation sufficiency as measured by infant weight gain., Birth. 1990 Mar;17(1):31-8.

Neifert MR, Prevention of breastfeeding tragedies., Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001 Apr;48(2):273-97.

Neifert MR, Seacat JM., Lactation insufficiency: a rational approach., Birth. 1987 Dec;14(4):182-90.

Nommsen-Rivers LA, et al., Delayed onset of lactogenesis among first-time mothers is related to maternal obesity and factors associated with ineffective breastfeeding., Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep;92(3):574-84. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29192. Epub 2010 Jun 23.

Stuebe AM, et al., Prevalence and risk factors for early, undesired weaning attributed to lactation dysfunction., J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 May;23(5):404-12. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2013.4506. Epub 2014 Mar 21.


No, formula isn’t evil. “One bottle” (or a hundred) won’t harm your child.

Flaherman VJ, et al., Effect of Early Limited Formula on Duration and Exclusivity of Breastfeeding in At-Risk Infants: An RCT., Pediatrics. 2013 Jun;131(6):1059-65. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2809. Epub 2013 May 13.


Nipple pain is common but also commonly an indication of problems.

Anderson JE, et al., Raynaud’s phenomenon of the nipple: a treatable cause of painful breastfeeding., Pediatrics. 2004 Apr;113(4):e360-4.

Buck ML, et al., Nipple Pain, Damage, and Vasospasm in the First 8 Weeks Postpartum., Breastfeed Med. 2014 Mar;9(2):56-62. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2013.0106. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

Dennis CL, et al., Interventions for treating painful nipples among breastfeeding women., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Dec 15;12:CD007366. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007366.pub2.

McClellan HL, et al., Nipple pain during breastfeeding with or without visible trauma., J Hum Lact. 2012 Nov;28(4):511-21. doi: 10.1177/0890334412444464. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

Morland-Schultz K, Hill PD., Prevention of and therapies for nipple pain: a systematic review., J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2005 Jul-Aug;34(4):428-37.

Page SM, McKenna DS., Vasospasm of the nipple presenting as painful lactation., Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Sep;108(3 Pt 2):806-8.

Tait P., Nipple pain in breastfeeding women: causes, treatment, and prevention strategies., J Midwifery Womens Health. 2000 May-Jun;45(3):212-5.

Vieira F, et al., A systematic review of the interventions for nipple trauma in breastfeeding mothers., J Nurs Scholarsh. 2013 Jun;45(2):116-25. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12010. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

Wu M, et al., Raynaud’s phenomenon of the nipple., Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Feb;119(2 Pt 2):447-9. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31822c9a73.


Tongue tie or lip tie.

Ballard JL, et al., Ankyloglossia: assessment, incidence, and effect of frenuloplasty on the breastfeeding dyad., Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5):e63.

Berry J, et al., A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of tongue-tie division and its immediate effect on breastfeeding., Breastfeed Med. 2012 Jun;7(3):189-93. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0030. Epub 2011 Oct 14.

Buryk M, et al., Efficacy of neonatal release of ankyloglossia: a randomized trial., Pediatrics. 2011 Aug;128(2):280-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0077. Epub 2011 Jul 18.

Edmunds J, et al., Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature., Breastfeed Rev. 2011 Mar;19(1):19-26.

Geddes DT, et al., Frenulotomy for breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia: effect on milk removal and sucking mechanism as imaged by ultrasound., Pediatrics. 2008 Jul;122(1):e188-94. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2553. Epub 2008 Jun 23.

Geddes DT, et al., Frenulotomy for breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia: effect on milk removal and sucking mechanism as imaged by ultrasound., Pediatrics. 2008 Jul;122(1):e188-94. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2553. Epub 2008 Jun 23.

Hogan M, et al., Randomized, controlled trial of division of tongue-tie in infants with feeding problems., J Paediatr Child Health. 2005 May-Jun;41(5-6):246-50.

O’Callahan C, et al., The effects of office-based frenotomy for anterior and posterior ankyloglossia on breastfeeding., Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 May;77(5):827-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.02.022. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Puapornpong P, et al., Comparisons of the latching on between newborns with tongue-tie and normal newborns., J Med Assoc Thai. 2014 Mar;97(3):255-9.

Ricke LA, et al., Newborn tongue-tie: prevalence and effect on breast-feeding., J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):1-7.

Steehler MW, et al., A retrospective review of frenotomy in neonates and infants with feeding difficulties., Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012 Sep;76(9):1236-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.05.009. Epub 2012 Jun 16.

Wallace H, Clarke S., Tongue tie division in infants with breast feeding difficulties., Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Jul;70(7):1257-61. Epub 2006 Mar 9.

Wiessinger D, Dysphoric milk ejection reflex: A case report. Int Breastfeed J. 2011 Jun 6;6(1):6. doi: 10.1186/1746-4358-6-6.


Milk Supply.

Donovan TJ, Buchanan K., Medications for increasing milk supply in mothers expressing breastmilk for their preterm hospitalised infants., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Mar 14;3:CD005544. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005544.pub2.

Forinash AB, et al., The use of galactogogues in the breastfeeding mother., Ann Pharmacother. 2012 Oct;46(10):1392-404. doi: 10.1345/aph.1R167. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Jackson PC, Complementary and alternative methods of increasing breast milk supply for lactating mothers of infants in the NICU., Neonatal Netw. 2010 Jul-Aug;29(4):225-30.

Mortel M, Mehta SD., Systematic review of the efficacy of herbal galactogogues., J Hum Lact. 2013 May;29(2):154-62. doi: 10.1177/0890334413477243. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Ndikom CM, et al., Extra fluids for breastfeeding mothers for increasing milk production., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 11;6:CD008758. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008758.pub2.

Zapantis A, et al., Use of herbals as galactagogues., J Pharm Pract. 2012 Apr;25(2):222-31. doi: 10.1177/0897190011431636.

Zuppa AA, et al., Safety and efficacy of galactogogues: substances that induce, maintain and increase breast milk production., J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010;13(2):162-74.


Caffeine, alcohol, and marijuana

Berlin CM Jr, et al., Disposition of dietary caffeine in milk, saliva, and plasma of lactating women., Pediatrics. 1984 Jan;73(1):59-63.

Garry A, et al., Cannabis and Breastfeeding., J Toxicol. 2009;2009:596149. doi: 10.1155/2009/596149. Epub 2009 Apr 29.

Haastrup MB, et al., Alcohol and Breastfeeding., Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014 Feb;114(2):168-73. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.12149. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Hildebrandt R, Gundert-Remy U., Lack of pharmacological active saliva levels of caffeine in breast-fed infants., Pediatr Pharmacol (New York). 1983;3(3-4):237-44.

Koletzko B, Lehner F., Beer and breastfeeding., Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;478:23-8.

Liston J, Breastfeeding and the use of recreational drugs–alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and marijuana., Breastfeed Rev. 1998 Aug;6(2):27-30.

Little RE, et al., Alcohol, breastfeeding, and development at 18 months., Pediatrics. 2002 May;109(5):E72-2.

Little RE, et al., Maternal alcohol use during breast-feeding and infant mental and motor development at one year., N Engl J Med. 1989 Aug 17;321(7):425-30.

Mennella J, Alcohol’s Effect on Lactation., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  

Nehlig A, Debry G., Consequences on the newborn of chronic maternal consumption of coffee during gestation and lactation: a review., J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Feb;13(1):6-21.

Ryu JE., Effect of maternal caffeine consumption on heart rate and sleep time of breast-fed infants., Dev Pharmacol Ther. 1985;8(6):355-63.

Santos IS, et al., Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study., Pediatrics. 2012 May; 129(5): 860–868. doi:  10.1542/peds.2011-1773

Sharma P, et al., Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications., Iran J Psychiatry. 2012 Fall; 7(4): 149–156.