February 18, 2016

Chapter 7 References

The Joys and Pains of Feeding  

Why We Care So Much About Feeding

Keywords: Infant, Feeding

Johnson SL, et al., Getting my child to eat the right amount. Mothers’ considerations when deciding how much food to offer their child at a meal., Appetite. 2014 Dec 12. pii: S0195-6663(14)00557-1. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.12.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Pescud M, Pettigrew S., ‘I know it’s wrong, but…’: a qualitative investigation of low-income parents’ feelings of guilt about their child-feeding practices., Matern Child Nutr. 2014 Jul;10(3):422-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00425.x. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

Thomson G, et al., Shame if you do–shame if you don’t: women’s experiences of infant feeding., Matern Child Nutr. 2015 Jan;11(1):33-46. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12148. Epub 2014 Aug 19.


Terrible Teething and The First Trip to the Dentist

Keywords: teething, childhood caries, pediatric dental

Abbate GM, et al., Correlation between unstimulated salivary flow, pH and streptococcus mutans, analysed with real time PCR, in caries-free and caries-active children, Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2014 Mar;15(1):51-4.

Bradshaw DJ, Lynch RJ., Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms, Int Dent J. 2013 Dec;63 Suppl 2:64-72. doi: 10.1111/idj.12082.

Chou R, et al., Preventing dental caries in children <5 years: systematic review updating USPSTF recommendation., Pediatrics. 2013 Aug;132(2):332-50. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1469. Epub 2013 Jul 15.

Clark MB, et al., Fluoride use in caries prevention in the primary care setting., Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134(3):626-33. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1699.

Curtis LA, et al., Are one or two dangerous? Lidocaine and topical anesthetic exposures in children., J Emerg Med. 2009 Jul;37(1):32-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.11.005. Epub 2008 Feb 14.

Dowd FJ, Saliva and dental caries, Dent Clin North Am. 1999 Oct;43(4):579-97.

Hassell TM, Harris EL., Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases, Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1995;6(4):319-42.

Hicks J, et al., Biological factors in dental caries: role of saliva and dental plaque in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization (part 1), J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2003 Fall;28(1):47-52.

Jones M, Teething in children and the alleviation of symptoms., J Fam Health Care. 2002;12(1):12-3.

Lingström P, et al., The pH of dental plaque in its relation to early enamel caries and dental plaque flora in humans, J Dent Res. 2000 Feb;79(2):770-7.

Macknin ML, et al., Symptoms associated with infant teething: a prospective study., Pediatrics. 2000 Apr;105(4 Pt 1):747-52.

Marsh PD, Dental plaque as a biofilm: the significance of pH in health and caries, Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2009 Mar;30(2):76-8, 80, 83-7; quiz 88, 90.

Nascimento MM, et al., Correlations of oral bacterial arginine and urea catabolism with caries experience, Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009 Apr;24(2):89-95. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2008.00477.x.

Owais AI, et al., Challenging parents’ myths regarding their children’s teething., Int J Dent Hyg. 2010 Feb;8(1):28-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2009.00412.x.

Ramos-Jorge J, et al., Prospective longitudinal study of signs and symptoms associated with primary tooth eruption., Pediatrics. 2011 Sep;128(3):471-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2697. Epub 2011 Aug 8.

Sen B, et al., Effectiveness of preventive dental visits in reducing nonpreventive dental visits and expenditures., Pediatrics. 2013 Jun;131(6):1107-13. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2586. Epub 2013 May 27.

Takahashi N, Nyvad B., The role of bacteria in the caries process: ecological perspectives, J Dent Res. 2011 Mar;90(3):294-303. doi: 10.1177/0022034510379602. Epub 2010 Oct 5.

Tinanoff N, Palmer CA., Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children., Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993). 2003 Apr;20(2):8-23, 78.

Tinanoff N, Palmer CA., Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children, J Public Health Dent. 2000 Summer;60(3):197-206; discussion 207-9.

Vieira AR, Genetics and caries: prospects, Braz Oral Res. 2012;26 Suppl 1:7-9.

Wake M, et al., Teething and tooth eruption in infants: A cohort study., Pediatrics. 2000 Dec;106(6):1374-9.


Teething necklaces

Taillefer A, et al., Infants wearing teething necklaces., Arch Pediatr. 2012 Oct;19(10):1058-64. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2012.07.003. Epub 2012 Aug 24.


When to first visit the dentist

Beil H, et al., Effect of early preventive dental visits on subsequent dental treatment and expenditures, Med Care. 2012 Sep;50(9):749-56. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e3182551713.

Savage MF, et al., Early preventive dental visits: effects on subsequent utilization and costs, Pediatrics. 2004 Oct;114(4):e418-23.


When Breastfeeding Should End

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding duration

Brown CR, et al., Factors influencing the reasons why mothers stop breastfeeding., Can J Public Health. 2014 May 9;105(3):e179-85.

Buckley KM, Long-Term Breastfeeding: Nourishment or Nurturance? J Hum Lact. 2001 Nov;17(4):304-12.

Chantry CJ, et al., Full breastfeeding duration and associated decrease in respiratory tract infection in US children., Pediatrics. 2006 Feb;117(2):425-32.

Fergusson DM, et al., Breastfeeding and subsequent social adjustment in six- to eight-year-old children., J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1987 May;28(3):379-86.

Hills-Bonczyk SG, et al., Women’s experiences with breastfeeding longer than 12 months., Birth. 1994 Dec;21(4):206-12.

Karlson EW, et al., Do breast-feeding and other reproductive factors influence future risk of rheumatoid arthritis?: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study., Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Nov;50(11):3458-67.

Kramer MS, Kakuma R., Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;8:CD003517. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2.

Li R, et al., Why mothers stop breastfeeding: mothers’ self-reported reasons for stopping during the first year., Pediatrics. 2008 Oct;122 Suppl 2:S69-76. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1315i.

Mandel D, et al., Fat and Energy Contents of Expressed Human Breast Milk in Prolonged Lactation., Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):e432-5.

Onyango AW, et al., The contribution of breast milk to toddler diets in western Kenya. Bull World Health Organ. 2002; 80(4): 292–299.  

Stuebe AM, et al., Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes., JAMA. 2005 Nov 23;294(20):2601-10.


BOX: Post-Weaning Depression

Susman VL, Katz JL., Weaning and depression: another postpartum complication., Am J Psychiatry. 1988 Apr;145(4):498-501.

Chezem J, et al., Maternal feelings after cessation of breastfeeding: influence of factors related to employment and duration., J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 1997 Sep;11(2):61-70.

Stuebe AM, et al., Failed Lactation and Perinatal Depression: Common Problems with Shared Neuroendocrine Mechanisms? J Womens Health (Larchmt). Mar 2012; 21(3): 264–272.


The Best Form Formula Can Take  

Keywords: formula feeding, infant formula, protein hydrolysates

About formula

Borschel MW, et al., Growth of healthy term infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein-based or free amino acid-based infant formula: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2013 Oct;52(10):910-7. doi: 10.1177/0009922813492883. Epub 2013 Jul 1.  

Greer FR, et al.,  Effects of Early Nutritional Interventions on the Development of Atopic Disease in Infants and Children: The Role of Maternal Dietary Restriction, Breastfeeding, Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods, and Hydrolyzed Formulas., PEDIATRICS Vol. 121 No. 1 January 1, 2008 183 -191. (doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3022)

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Evaluation of the Addition of Ingredients Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004. Executive Summary. 

Osborn DA, Sinn J., Formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infants., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD003664.  

US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. Overview: Infant formula and fluoridosis. July 10, 2013. Accessed February 2015.  

USFDA. FDA takes final step on infant formula protections. June 9, 2014. Accessed February 2015.  


When to Start the Spoon

Keywords: complementary infant food, complementary feeding

Abrams EM, Becker AB., Introducing solid food: Age of introduction and its effect on risk of food allergy and other atopic diseases., Canadian Family Physician2013;59(7):721-722.  

Anagnostou K, Clark A, The management of peanut allergy., Arch Dis Child 2015;100:68–72. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306152   

Baker RD, Greer FR,  Diagnosis and prevention of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children (0-3 years of age). Committee on Nutrition American Academy of Pediatrics., Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):1040-50. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2576. Epub 2010 Oct 5.  

Becker GE, Remmington T. Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 25;11:CD006462. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006462.pub3.  

Butte NF, et al., Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes., J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(12 Suppl):S27–37.   

Butte, N. F., et al., Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the frist six months of life. WHO. (2002). ISBN-10: 9241562110

Clayton HB, et al.,  Prevalence and Reasons for Introducing Infants Early to Solid Foods: Variations by Milk Feeding Type., Pediatrics 2013;131(4):e1108-e1114. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2265.  

Daniels LA, et al., Evaluation of an intervention to promote protective infant feeding practices to prevent childhood obesity: outcomes of the NOURISH RCT at 14 months of age and 6 months post the first of two intervention modules., Int J Obes (Lond) 2012;36(10):1292–8. 

Daniels LA, et al., Outcomes of an early feeding practices intervention to prevent childhood obesity., Pediatrics. 2013;132(1):e109–18.   

Fewtrell MS, et al., Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: what is the evidence to support current recommendations?, Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):635S-638S.

Greer FR, et al., Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: therole of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, andhydrolyzed formulas., American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Allergy and Immunology. Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):183-91. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3022.  

Hawkins SS, et al., An ecological systems approach to examining risk factors for early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study., Arch Dis Child. 2012 Dec; 97(12): 1019–1026. Published online 2012 Oct 29. doi:  10.1136/archdischild-2012-302263

Heppe DH, et al., Parental, fetal, and infant risk factors for preschool overweight: the Generation R Study., Pediatr Res. 2013 Jan;73(1):120-7. doi: 10.1038/pr.2012.145. Epub 2012 Nov 8

Huh SY, et al., Timing of Solid Food Introduction and Risk of Obesity in Preschool-Aged Children., Pediatrics2011;127(3):e544-e551. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0740.  

Jonsdottir OH, et al., Timing of the introduction of complementary foods in infancy: a randomized controlled trial., Pediatrics. 2012 Dec;130(6):1038-45. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-3838. Epub 2012 Nov 12.

Kramer MS, Kakuma R. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;8:CD003517. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003517.pub2.  

Krebs NF, et al., Effects of Different Complementary Feeding Regimens on Iron Status and Enteric Microbiota in Breastfed Infants., The Journal of pediatrics 2013;163(2):416-423.e4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.01.024.  

Krebs NF, et al., Meat as a first complementary food for breastfed infants: feasibility and impact on zinc intake and status., J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Feb;42(2):207-14  

Kuo AA, et al., Introduction of Solid Food to Young Infants. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2011;15(8):1185-1194. doi:10.1007/s10995-010-0669-5.  

Luccioli S, et al., Infant feeding practices and reported food allergies at 6 years of age., Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134 Suppl 1:S21-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0646E.

Neutzling M, et al., Infant feeding and obesity at 11 years: Prospective birth cohort study., Int J Pediatr Obes 2009;4:143–9.

Seach KA, et al., Delayed introduction of solid feeding reduces child overweight and obesity at 10 years., Int J Obes 2010;34:1475–9.  

Tang M, Krebs NF., High protein intake from meat as complementary food increases growth but not adiposity in breastfed infants: a randomized trial., Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Nov;100(5):1322-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.088807. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Weng SF, et al., Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy., Archives of Disease in Childhood 2012;97(12):1019-1026. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2012-302263.  

Weng SF, et al., Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy., Arch Dis Child.2012;97(12):1019–26.   

Young BE, Krebs NF,Complementary Feeding: Critical Considerations to Optimize Growth, Nutrition, and Feeding Behavior., Curr Pediatr Rep. 2013 Dec 1; 1(4): 247–256. Published online 2013 Oct 16. doi:  10.1007/s40124-013-0030-8.

Young BE, Krebs NF., Complementary Feeding: Critical Considerations to Optimize Growth, Nutrition, and Feeding Behavior., Current pediatrics reports2013;1(4):247-256. doi:10.1007/s40124-013-0030-8.  


The Scientific Skinny on Childhood Obesity and Diabetes

Keywords: childhood obesity, obesogenic, type 2 diabetes, screen time, sleep, sugar-sweetened beverages, Wansink

Weng SF, et al., Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy., Arch Dis Child.2012 Dec;97(12):1019-26. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-302263. Epub 2012 Oct 29.


Things you (arguably) can’t change

Dabelea D, et al., Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009., JAMA.2014 May 7;311(17):1778-86. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.3201.

D’Adamo E,Caprio S., Type 2 diabetes in youth: epidemiology and pathophysiology., Diabetes Care.2011 May;34 Suppl 2:S161-5. doi: 10.2337/dc11-s212.

Fliers EA, et al., ADHD is a risk factor for overweight and obesity in children., J Dev Behav Pediatr.2013 Oct;34(8):566-74. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182a50a67.


Things you can potentially help to change

Boeke CE, et al., Childhood sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin concentration in two cohort studies., Sleep.2014 Mar 1;37(3):613-20. doi: 10.5665/sleep.3510.

Hart CN, et al., Changes in children’s sleep duration on food intake, weight, and leptin., Pediatrics.2013 Dec;132(6):e1473-80. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1274. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

Knutson KL, Does inadequate sleep play a role in vulnerability to obesity?, Am J Hum Biol.2012 May-Jun;24(3):361-71. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.22219. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

McDonald L, et al., Sleep and nighttime energy consumption in early childhood: a population-based cohort study., Pediatr Obes.2015 Jan 7. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12006. [Epub ahead of print]

Mitchell JA, et al., Sleep duration and adolescent obesity., Pediatrics.2013 May;131(5):e1428-34. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2368. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Moraleda-Cibrián M,O’Brien LM., Sleep duration and body mass index in children and adolescents with and without obstructive sleep apnea., Sleep Breath.2014 Sep;18(3):555-61. doi: 10.1007/s11325-013-0918-0. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Scharf RJ,DeBoer MD, Sleep timing and longitudinal weight gain in 4- and 5-year-old children., Pediatr Obes.2015 Apr;10(2):141-8. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.229. Epub 2014 Jun 12.


Things you can change

Berkey CS, et al., Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents., Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.2005 Jun;159(6):543-50.

Bickham DS, et al., Characteristics of screen media use associated with higher BMI in young adolescents., Pediatrics.2013 May;131(5):935-41. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1197. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Blass EM, et al., On the road to obesity: Television viewing increases intake of high-density foods., Physiol Behav.2006 Jul 30;88(4-5):597-604. Epub 2006 Jul 5.

de Ruyter JC, et al., A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children., N Engl J Med.2012 Oct 11;367(15):1397-406. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1203034. Epub 2012 Sep 21.

DeBoer MD, et al., Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in 2- to 5-year-old children., Pediatrics.2013 Sep;132(3):413-20. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0570. Epub 2013 Aug 5.

DiSantis KI, et al., Plate size and children’s appetite: effects of larger dishware on self-served portions and intake., Pediatrics.2013 May;131(5):e1451-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2330. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Ebbeling CB, et al., A randomized trial of sugar-sweetened beverages and adolescent body weight., N Engl J Med.2012 Oct 11;367(15):1407-16. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1203388. Epub 2012 Sep 21.

Harris JL, et al., Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior., Health Psychol.2009 Jul;28(4):404-13. doi: 10.1037/a0014399.

Hu FB, Malik VS, Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: Epidemiologic evidence., Physiol Behav. 2010 Apr 26; 100(1): 47–54. Published online 2010 Feb 6. doi:  10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.036

Lesser LI, Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study., BMC Public Health. 2013 Jan 10;13:20. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-20.

Qi Q, et al., Sugar-sweetened beverages and genetic risk of obesity., N Engl J Med.2012 Oct 11;367(15):1387-96. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1203039. Epub 2012 Sep 21.

Scharf RJ, et al., Longitudinal evaluation of milk type consumed and weight status in preschoolers., Arch Dis Child.2013 May;98(5):335-40. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-302941. Epub 2013 Mar 18.

Vartanian LR, et al., Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Am J Public Health.2007 Apr;97(4):667-75. Epub 2007 Feb 28.


Deciding How Vital Vitamins Are

Keywords: vitamin D supplementation, iron supplementation, zinc supplementation, children’s vitamins

D’Auria E, et al., Omega-3 fatty acids and asthma in children., Allergy Asthma Proc. 2014 May-Jun;35(3):233-40. doi: 10.2500/aap.2014.35.3736.

Domellöf M, et al., Iron requirements of infants and toddlers., J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Jan;58(1):119-29. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000206.   

Grant CC, et al., Vitamin D during pregnancy and infancy and infant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration., Pediatrics. 2014 Jan;133(1):e143-53. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2602. Epub 2013 Dec 16.   

Halicioglu O, et al., Vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed 4-month-old infants supplemented during different seasons., Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e921-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-0017. Epub 2012 Sep 24.

Lee JY, et al., A Review on Vitamin D Deficiency Treatment in Pediatric Patients., The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics : JPPT 2013;18(4):277-291. doi:10.5863/1551-6776-18.4.277.  

Maguire JL, et al., DO IT Trial: vitamin D Outcomes and Interventions in Toddlers –a TARGet Kids! randomized controlled trial., BMC Pediatrics 2014;14:37. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-37.  

Maguire JL, et al., The relationship between cow’s milk and stores of vitamin D and iron in early childhood., Pediatrics., 2013 Jan;131(1):e144-51. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1793. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Mansbach JM, et al., Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Among US Children Aged 1 to 11 Years: Do Children Need More Vitamin D?, Pediatrics 2009;124(5):1404-1410. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2041.  

Merewood A, et al., Widespread vitamin D deficiency in urban Massachusetts newborns and their mothers., Pediatrics. 2010 Apr;125(4):640-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2158. Epub 2010 Mar 22.

US CDC., Recommendations to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency in the United States., MMWR 1998;47 (No. RR-3) p. 5  


“My Four-Year-Old Has Never Eaten a Single Vegetable”

Keywords: feeding, feeding anxiety, supertaster, neophobia, food neophobia

Beauchamp GK, Mennella JA., Flavor Perception in Human Infants: Development and Functional Significance., Digestion 2011;83(Suppl 1):1-6. doi:10.1159/000323397.  

Blissett J, Fogel A., Intrinsic and extrinsic influences on children’s acceptance of new foods., Physiol Behav. 2013 Sep 10;121:89-95. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.02.013. Epub 2013 Feb 28.   

Cassells EL, et al.,The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the expression of food neophobia in toddlers., Appetite. 2014 Nov;82:36-42. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.07.001. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Demattè ML, et al., Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction., Frontiers in Psychology 2014;5:127. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00127.  

Faith MS, et al., Child food neophobia is heritable, associated with less compliant eating, and moderates familial resemblance for BMI., Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Aug;21(8):1650-5. doi: 10.1002/oby.20369. Epub 2013 Jul 2.

Finistrella V, et al., Cross-sectional exploration of maternal reports of food neophobia and pickiness in preschooler-mother dyads., J Am Coll Nutr. 2012 Jun;31(3):152-9.

Howard AJ, et al.,  Toddlers’ food preferences. The impact of novel food exposure, maternal preferences and food neophobia., Appetite. 2012 Dec;59(3):818-25. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.08.022. Epub 2012 Aug 29.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute. PTC: genes and bitter taste. (2015)

Shim JE, et al., Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children., J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Sep;111(9):1363-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.06.410.  

Törnwall O, et al.,Identifying flavor preference subgroups. Genetic basis and related eating behavior traits., Appetite. 2014 Apr;75:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.11.020. Epub 2013 Dec 19.


Produce Aisle Showdown: GMO Vs. Organic

Keywords: GM food, genetically modified, GMO, organic food, conventionally grown food, conventional food

Bawa AS, Anilakumar KR., Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review., J Food Sci Technol. 2013 Dec;50(6):1035-46. doi: 10.1007/s13197-012-0899-1. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Casassus B., Study linking GM maize to rat tumours is retracted., Nature doi:10.1038/nature.2013.14268

Elsevier. Elsevier announces article retraction from journal food and chemical toxicology. November 28, 2013. Accessed February 2015.

Kamihiro S, et al., Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production., Meat Sci. 2014 Oct 23;100C:306-318. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.10.015. [Epub ahead of print]

Kim S, Woo GJ., Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from conventional and organic vegetables., Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2014 Oct;11(10):815-21. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2014.1771. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

USDA. Recent trends in GE adoption. July 14, 2014.  


Attack of the Allergens: Milk, Wheat, Nuts, Eggs, and the Rest

Keywords: food allergies, allergens, celiac, caeliac

Burks AW, et al., ICON: food allergy., J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Apr;129(4):906-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.001. Epub 2012 Feb 23.


Allergies versus sensitivities and intolerances

Dambacher WM, et al., Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in children with alleged cow’s milk allergy: prevention of unnecessary elimination diets and determination of eliciting doses., Nutr J. 2013 Feb 8;12:22. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-22.

Høst A, et al., Clinical course of cow’s milk protein allergy/intolerance and atopic diseases in childhood., Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002;13 Suppl 15:23-8.

Schulmeister U, et al., Sensitization to human milk., Clin Exp Allergy. 2008 Jan;38(1):60-8. Epub 2007 Oct 29.

Vandenplas Y, et al., Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of cow’s milk protein allergy in infants., Arch Dis Child. 2007 Oct;92(10):902-8.


Can we prevent it?  

Koplin JJ, Allen KJ., Optimal timing for solids introduction – why are the guidelines always changing?, Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Aug;43(8):826-34. doi: 10.1111/cea.12090.

Kramer MS, Kakuma R., Maternal dietary antigen avoidance during pregnancy or lactation, or both, for preventing or treating atopic disease in the child., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9:CD000133. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000133.pub3.

Matheson MC, et al., Understanding the evidence for and against the role of breastfeeding in allergy prevention., Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Jun;42(6):827-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03925.x.

Nissen SP, et al., The natural course of sensitization and allergic diseases from childhood to adulthood., Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Sep;24(6):549-55. doi: 10.1111/pai.12108. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Nwaru BI, et al., Age at the introduction of solid foods during the first year and allergic sensitization at age 5 years., Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125(1):50-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-0813. Epub 2009 Dec 7.

Nwaru BI, et al., Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods during infancy in relation to the risk of asthma and atopic diseases up to 10 years., Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Nov;43(11):1263-73. doi: 10.1111/cea.12180.

Nwaru BI, et al., Introduction of complementary foods in infancy and atopic sensitization at the age of 5 years: timing and food diversity in a Finnish birth cohort., Allergy. 2013 Apr;68(4):507-16. doi: 10.1111/all.12118. Epub 2013 Feb 15.

Poole JA, et al., Timing of initial exposure to cereal grains and the risk of wheat allergy., Pediatrics. 2006 Jun;117(6):2175-82.

Sariachvili M, et al., Early exposure to solid foods and the development of eczema in children up to 4 years of age., Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010 Feb;21(1 Pt 1):74-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2009.00899.x. Epub 2009 Jul 1

Vanto T et al., Prediction of the development of tolerance to milk in children with cow’s milk hypersensitivity., J Pediatr. 2004 Feb;144(2):218-22.

Zutavern A, et al., Timing of solid food introduction in relation to eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food and inhalant sensitization at the age of 6 years: results from the prospective birth cohort study LISA., Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):e44-52. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-3553.

Zutavern A, et al., Timing of solid food introduction in relation to atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization: results from a prospective birth cohort study., Pediatrics. 2006 Feb;117(2):401-11.


Treating allergies

Lifschitz C, Szajewska H., Cow’s milk allergy: evidence-based diagnosis and management for the practitioner., Eur J Pediatr. 2015 Feb;174(2):141-50. doi: 10.1007/s00431-014-2422-3. Epub 2014 Sep 26.


Celiac disease

Akobeng AK, et al., Effect of breast feeding on risk of coeliac disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies., Arch Dis Child. 2006 Jan;91(1):39-43. Epub 2005 Nov 15.

Aronsson CA, et al., Age at gluten introduction and risk of celiac disease., Pediatrics. 2015 Feb;135(2):239-45. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1787. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

Chmielewska A, et al., Celiac disease–prevention strategies through early infant nutrition., World Rev Nutr Diet. 2013;108:91-7. doi: 10.1159/000351491. Epub 2013 Sep 6.

Guandalini S, The influence of gluten: weaning recommendations for healthy children and children at risk for celiac disease., Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2007;60:139-51; discussion 151-5.

Henriksson C, et al., What effect does breastfeeding have on coeliac disease? A systematic review update., Evid Based Med. 2013 Jun;18(3):98-103. doi: 10.1136/eb-2012-100607. Epub 2012 Aug 4.

Ludvigsson JF, Fasano A., Timing of introduction of gluten and celiac disease risk., Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;60 Suppl 2:22-9. doi: 10.1159/000335335. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Rubio-Tapia A, et al., The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States., Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;107(10):1538-44; quiz 1537, 1545. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.219. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Størdal K, et al., Early feeding and risk of celiac disease in a prospective birth cohort., Pediatrics. 2013 Nov;132(5):e1202-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1752. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Szajewska H, et al., Systematic review: early infant feeding and the prevention of coeliac disease., Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Oct;36(7):607-18. doi: 10.1111/apt.12023. Epub 2012 Aug 21.