February 18, 2016

Chapter 8 References

You, Your Child, and the Environment

On Chemicals and “Chemophobia”

Keywords: bisphenol, BPA, endocrine disruptor, EDC, plasticizer

Aungst J., Memorandum., US Department of Health and Human Services June 17, 2014.  

Bae S, Hong Y-C., Exposure to Bisphenol A From Drinking Canned Beverages Increases Blood Pressure: Randomized Crossover Trial., Hypertension. 2015;65:313-319.  

Birnbaum et al., Working Together: Research- and Science-Based Regulation of BPA. Environmental Health Perspectives 121(7). (2013).

Braun JM, et al., Early-Life Bisphenol A Exposure and Child Body Mass Index: A Prospective Cohort Study., Environmental Health Perspectives 2014;122(11):1239-1245. doi:10.1289/ehp.1408258.  

Miodovnik A, et al., Endocrine Disruptors and Childhood Social Impairment., Neurotoxicology 2011;32(2):261-267. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2010.12.009.  

Rochester JR., Bisphenol A and human health: a review of the literature., Reprod Toxicol. 2013 Dec;42:132-55. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.08.008. Epub 2013 Aug 30.

Shakespeare W, Coriolanus (2.1.68-9) Dec 1609 First Performance.  

Tavernie, S., F.D.A. Makes It Official: BPA Can’t Be Used in Baby Bottles and Cups. NY Times., July 7, 2012.  

Trasande L, et al., Association Between Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration and Obesity Prevalence in Children and Adolescents. JAMA. 2012;308(11):1113-1121. doi:10.1001/2012.jama.11461.  

US Consumer Products Safety Commission., Phthalates., Current as of February 2015.  

Veiga-Lopez et al., Impact of Gestational Bisphenol A on Oxidative Stress and Free Fatty Acids: Human Association and Interspecies Animal Testing Studies Endocrinology., Department of Pediatrics and Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2014-1863 December 09, 2014


Bug Off: DEET and Other Mosquito Repellents

Keywords: DEET, mosquito repellent, picaridin, insect repellent

Antwi, FB, et al., Risk assessments for the insect repellents DEET and picaridin. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 51, Issue 1 (June 2008), pp. 31-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2008.03.002

Briassoulis G., et al., Toxic encephalopathy associated with use of DEET insect repellents: a case analysis of its toxicity in children., Human & Experimental Toxicology, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Jan. 2001), pp. 8-14. DOI: 10.1191/096032701676731093

Chen-Hussey V., et al., Assessment of methods used to determine the safety of the topical insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET)., Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 7, Issue 1 (June 2014). DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-173

Enayati AA, et al., Electronic mosquito repellents for preventing mosquito bites and malaria infection., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD005434.

Frances SP., et al., Field Evaluation of Repellent Formulations Containing DEET and Picaridin Against Mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 41, No. 3 (May 2004), pp. 414-417. DOI: 10.1603/0022-2585-41.3.414

McGready R., et al., Safety of the insect repellent N, N-Diethyl-M-Toluamide (DEET) in pregnancy., American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 65, No. 4 (2001), pp. 285-289.

Pellegrino M, et al., A natural polymorphism alters odour and DEET sensitivity in an insect odorant receptor., Nature, 478 (Oct. 27, 2011), pp. 511-514. DOI: 10.1038/nature10438

Peng Z,et al., Evidence for natural desensitization to mosquito salivary allergens: mosquito saliva specific IgE and IgG levels in children., Annals of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, Vol. 93, Issue 6 (Dec. 2004), pp. 553-556. DOI: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61262-8

Roberts JD, et al., DEET alternatives considered to be effective mosquito repellents. AAP News 2005; 26:15-16

Sudakin DL., Trevathan WR., DEET: A Review and Update of Safety and Risk in the General Population. Clinical Toxicology, Vol. 41, No. 6 (2003), pp. 831-839. DOI: 10.1081/CLT-120025348

Syed Z., Leal WS., Mosquitoes smell and avoid the insect repellant DEET. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, No. 36 (Sept. 9, 2008), pp. 13598-13603. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0805312105


Children and Medication

Keywords: pediatric cough, nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, head cold, honey, acetaminophen, atopic disease, asthma, paracetamol, homeopathy, essential oils, melatonin

Coughs, colds, and respiratory infections

Khosravi M, et al., Breathing hot humid air induces airway irritation and cough in patients with allergic rhinitis., Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2014 Jul 1;198:13-9. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2014.03.013. Epub 2014 Apr 4.

Mulholland S, Chang AB., Honey and lozenges for children with non-specific cough., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD007523. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007523.pub2.

Oduwole O, et al., Honey for acute cough in children., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Dec 23;12:CD007094. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007094.pub4.

Paul IM, et al., Placebo Effect in the Treatment of Acute Cough in Infants and Toddlers., JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Dec;168(12):1107-13. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1609.

Paul IM, et al., Vapor Rub, Petrolatum, and No Treatment for Children With Nocturnal Cough and Cold Symptoms., Pediatrics. 2010 Dec;126(6):1092-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-1601. Epub 2010 Nov 8.

Smith SM, et al., Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 24;11:CD001831. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001831.pub5.


Et tu, Tylenol?

Wang JY, et al., Acetaminophen and/or antibiotic use in early life and the development of childhood allergic diseases., Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;42(4):1087-99. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt121.

Dharmage SC, Allen KJ., Does regular paracetamol ingestion increase the risk of developing asthma?, Clin Exp Allergy. 2011 Apr;41(4):459-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03716.x.

Heintze K, Petersen KU., The case of drug causation of childhood asthma: antibiotics and paracetamol., Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jun;69(6):1197-209. doi: 10.1007/s00228-012-1463-7. Epub 2013 Jan 5.

Cheelo M, et al., Paracetamol exposure in pregnancy and early childhood and development of childhood asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Arch Dis Child. 2015 Jan;100(1):81-9. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-303043. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Wickens K, et al., The effects of early and late paracetamol exposure on asthma and atopy: a birth cohort., Clin Exp Allergy. 2011 Mar;41(3):399-406. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03610.x. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Kang EM, et al., Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and asthma in children., Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec;114(6):1295-306. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c225c0.

Muc M, et al., Exposure to paracetamol and antibiotics in early life and elevated risk of asthma in childhood., Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;788:393-400. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6627-3_53.

Källén B, et al., Maternal drug use during pregnancy and asthma risk among children., Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Feb;24(1):28-32. doi: 10.1111/pai.12034.

Farquhar H, et al., The role of paracetamol in the pathogenesis of asthma., Clin Exp Allergy. 2010 Jan;40(1):32-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03378.x.

Eyers S, et al., Paracetamol in pregnancy and the risk of wheezing in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Clin Exp Allergy. 2011 Apr;41(4):482-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2010.03691.x. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

Scialli AR, et al., Childhood asthma and use during pregnancy of acetaminophen. A critical review., Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Dec;30(4):508-19. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.09.005. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Scialli AR, et al., A review of the literature on the effects of acetaminophen on pregnancy outcome., Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Dec;30(4):495-507. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.07.007. Epub 2010 Jul 24.

Rebordosa C, et al., Acetaminophen use during pregnancy: effects on risk for congenital abnormalities., Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Feb;198(2):178.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.08.040.

Feldkamp ML, et al., Acetaminophen use in pregnancy and risk of birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study., Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan;115(1):109-15. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c52616.

Burdan F, et al., Prenatal tolerability of acetaminophen and other over-the-counter non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors., Pharmacol Rep. 2012;64(3):521-7.


Homeopathy and the placebo effect

Vickers A, Zollman C, Homoeopathy. BMJ. 1999 Oct 23; 319(7217): 1115–1118.


What’s So Essential About Oils

Bang J, et al. Poisoning by anis oil, Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Feb 4;170(6):461.

Botma M, et al. Laryngeal oedema caused by accidental ingestion of Oil of Wintergreen. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 May 11;58(3):229-32.

Eisenhut M. The toxicity of essential oils. Int J Infect Dis. 2007 Jul;11(4):365; author reply 365-6. Epub 2007 Feb 23.

Khanna R, et al. Peppermint oil for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul;48(6):505-12. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e3182a88357.

Flaman Z, et al. Unintentional exposure of young children to camphor and eucalyptus oils. Paediatr Child Health. 2001 Feb;6(2):80-3.

Patel B, et al. Parental poison prevention practices and their relationship with perceived toxicity: cross-sectional study. Inj Prev. 2008 Dec;14(6):389-95. doi: 10.1136/ip.2008.019604.

Reith DM, et al. Childhood poisoning in Queensland: an analysis of presentation and admission rates. J Paediatr Child Health. 2001 Oct;37(5):446-50.


The mellowing effects of melatonin

Bendz LM, Scates AC., Melatonin treatment for insomnia in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder., Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Jan;44(1):185-91. doi: 10.1345/aph.1M365. Epub 2009 Dec 22.

Bruni O, et al., Current role of melatonin in pediatric neurology: Clinical recommendations., Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2015 Mar;19(2):122-33. doi: 10.1016/ j.ejpn.2014.12.007. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Gordon N, The therapeutics of melatonin: a paediatric perspective., Brain Dev. 2000 Jun;22(4):213-7.

Peled N, et al., Melatonin effect on seizures in children with severe neurologic deficit disorders., Epilepsia. 2001 Sep;42(9):1208-10.

Rossignol DA, Frye RE., Melatonin in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011 Sep;53(9):783-92. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.03980.x. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Smits MG, et al., Melatonin for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial., J Child Neurol. 2001 Feb;16(2):86-92.


The Hygiene Hypothesis: The Help and Harm of Playing in the Dirt

Keywords: hygiene hypothesis, atopic disease, atopia, allergy, asthma, Th1 immune response, Th2 immune response

Okada H, et al., The “hygiene hypothesis” for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update., Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2010;160(1):1-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2010.04139.x.  


Inflammation and Children

Keywords: inflammation, immune system, Th1 immune response, Th2 immune response

American Academy of Pediatrics., News release: Advice on managming fevers in children., (2011) Accessed February 2015.  

Paessler S, Walker DH., Pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fevers., Annual Review of Pathology 8:411-440.  

Taschery S., Inflammation and cancer: why is your diet important?, May 2014MD Anderson Cancer Center. Accessed online February 2015.  

Warner J., New advice for fighting fever in children: Fever may have beneficial effects in fighting infections, say pediatricians., WebMD Health News. Feb 28, 2011.


Cats and Dogs and Turtles, Oh My!

Keywords: cats, dogs, feline, canine, allergies, allergens, dog bite, salmonella, pets

Allergies to cats and dogs

Chen CM, et al., The role of cats and dogs in asthma and allergy – a systematic review., Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010 Jan;213(1):1-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2009.12.003. Epub 2010 Jan 6.

Dharmage SC, et al., Exposure to Cats: Update on Risks for Sensitization and Allergic Diseases., Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012 Oct;12(5):413-23. doi: 10.1007/s11882-012-0288-x.

Fretzayas A, et al., Controversial role of pets in the development of atopy in children., World J Pediatr. 2013 May;9(2):112-9. doi: 10.1007/s12519-013-0412-6. Epub 2013 May 16.

Lodge CJ, et al., Perinatal Cat and Dog Exposure and the Risk of Asthma and Allergy in the Urban Environment: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies., Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:176484. doi: 10.1155/2012/176484. Epub 2011 Nov 30.

Lødrup Carlsen KC, et al., Does Pet Ownership in Infancy Lead to Asthma or Allergy at School Age? Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data from 11 European Birth Cohorts., PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43214. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043214. Epub 2012 Aug 29.

Pelucchi C, et al., Pet exposure and risk of atopic dermatitis at the pediatric age: a meta-analysis of birth cohort studies., J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Sep;132(3):616-622.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2013.04.009. Epub 2013 May 24.

Rhodes HL, et al., A birth cohort study of subjects at risk of atopy: twenty-two-year follow-up of wheeze and atopic status., Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Jan 15;165(2):176-80.

Takkouche B, et al., Exposure to furry pets and the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis: a meta-analysis., Allergy. 2008 Jul;63(7):857-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01732.x.


Dogs and biting

Casey RA, et al., Human directed aggression in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): Occurrence in different contexts and risk factors., School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Accepted: December 3, 2013; Published Online: December 26, 2013

Chu AY, et al., Fatal dog maulings associated with infant swings., J Forensic Sci. 2006 Mar;51(2):403-6.

Reisner IR, et al., Behavioral assessment of child-directed canine aggression., Inj Prev. 2007 Oct;13(5):348-51.

Reisner IR, et al., Behavioural characteristics associated with dog bites to children presenting to an urban trauma centre., Inj Prev. 2011 Oct;17(5):348-53. doi: 10.1136/ip.2010.029868. Epub 2011 Mar 28.

Reisner IR, Shofer FS., Effects of gender and parental status on knowledge and attitudes of dog owners regarding dog aggression toward children., J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 Nov 1;233(9):1412-9. doi: 10.2460/javma.233.9.1412.

Sacks JJ, et al., Breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1998., J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2000 Sep 15;217(6):836-40.

Sacks JJ, et al., Fatal dog attacks, 1989-1994., Pediatrics. 1996 Jun;97(6 Pt 1):891-5.


Salmonella risk

Mettee Zarecki SL, et al., US outbreak of human Salmonella infections associated with aquatic frogs, 2008-2011., Pediatrics. 2013 Apr;131(4):724-31. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-2031. Epub 2013 Mar 11.


Kids and Guns: Avoiding Avoidable Tragedy

Keywords: firearms, pediatric, children, weapons effect

Baxley F, Miller M., Parental misperceptions about children and firearms., Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 May;160(5):542-7.

Connor SM, Wesolowski KL., “They’re too smart for that”: predicting what children would do in the presence of guns., Pediatrics. 2003 Feb;111(2):E109-14.

Farah MM, et al., Firearms in the home: parental perceptions., Pediatrics. 1999 Nov;104(5 Pt 1):1059-63.

Gatheridge BJ, et al., Comparison of two programs to teach firearm injury prevention skills to 6- and 7-year-old children., Pediatrics. 2004 Sep;114(3):e294-9.

Grossman DC, et al., Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm injuries., JAMA. 2005 Feb 9;293(6):707-14.

Hardy MS, Effects of gun admonitions on the behaviors and attitudes of school-aged boys., J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2003 Oct;24(5):352-8.

Hardy MS, et al., A firearm safety program for children: they just can’t say no., J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1996 Aug;17(4):216-21.

Hardy MS, Teaching firearm safety to children: failure of a program., J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2002 Apr;23(2):71-6.

Hellendoorn J, Harinck FJH, War Toy Play and Aggression in Dutch Kindergarten Children. Social Development. Volume 6, Issue 3, pages 340–354, November 1997. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.1997.tb00110.x

Jackman GA, et al., Seeing is believing: what do boys do when they find a real gun?, Pediatrics. 2001 Jun;107(6):1247-50.

Morin R, The demographics and politics of gun-owning households. Pew Research Center JULY 15, 2014.

OAG Aviation & PlaneCrashInfo.com, accident database, 20 years of data (1993-2012).  

Turner CW, Goldsmith D., Effects of toy guns and airplanes on children’s antisocial free play behavior., J Exp Child Psychol. 1976 Apr;21(2):303-15.

Vernick JS, et al., Unintentional and undetermined firearm related deaths: a preventable death analysis for three safety devices., Inj Prev. Dec 2003; 9(4): 307–311.

Watson MW, Peng Y, The Relation Between Toy Gun Play and Children’s Aggressive Behavior., Early Education and Development. Vol. 3, Issue 4, 1992. DOI:10.1207/s15566935eed0304_7


Air Pollution: What We Can’t See Can Hurt Us

Keywords: particulate matter, PM 10, PM 2.5, soot, diesel particulate matter

America Lung Association., Dangerous to Breathe: Why EPA needs to protect us from coarse particles., March 2011/Accessed Feb 2015.  

Boothe VL, et al., Residential traffic exposure and childhood leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Am J Prev Med. 2014 Apr;46(4):413-22. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.11.004.

Clark NA, et al., Effect of early life exposure to air pollution on development of childhood asthma., Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):284-90. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900916.

Gaffin JM, et al., Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis., Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Sep; 22(1): 21–30. Published online 2014 Jun 19. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.06.005

Ghio AJ, et al., Composition of air pollution particles and oxidative stress in cells, tissues, and living systems., J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2012;15(1):1-21. doi: 10.1080/10937404.2012.632359.

Juarez D., Asthma and allergies on the rise in the US. HealthlineNews. November 8, 2013.

National Cancer Institute., Cancer in Children and Adolescence., Accessed Feb 2015.  

Keet CA, et al.,Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Neighborhood poverty, urban residence, race/ethnicity, and asthma: Rethinking the inner-city asthma epidemic., DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2014.11.022

Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, et al., Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies., Environ Health. 2013 Jan 15;12:6. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-6.

Pedersen M, et al., Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Hypertension. 2014 Sep;64(3):494-500. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03545. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Proietti E, et al., Air pollution during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: a review., J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2013 Feb;26(1):9-23. doi: 10.1089/jamp.2011.0932. Epub 2012 Aug 2.

Ramsey KA., In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water impairs early life lung mechanics in mice., BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 2013, 14:13.

Theresa W Gauthier, et al., Fetal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Function via Decreased Glutathione Availability., Pediatric Research (2005) 57, 76–81; doi:10.1203/01.PDR.0000149108.44152.D3.

US EPA., Diesel Particulate Matter., EPA.gov Accessed Feb 2015.  

US EPA., Particulate Matter., EPA.gov Accessed Feb 2015.  

Vrijheid M, et al., Ambient air pollution and risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Environ Health Perspect. 2011 May;119(5):598-606. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002946. Epub 2010 Dec 3.

Wright RJ, Brunst KJ., Programming of respiratory health in childhood: influence of outdoor air pollution., Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013 Apr;25(2):232-9. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835e78cc.  


The Water We Drink

Keywords: bottled water, fluoride, fluorosis

Adair SM, et al., Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States., CDC.gov 8/22/2001

Aschengrau  A, Prenatal drinking-water exposure to tetrachloroethylene and ischemic placental disease: a retrospective cohort study., Environ Health. 2014 Sep 30;13:72. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-72.

Azoulay A, et al., Comparison of the mineral content of tap water and bottled waters., J Gen Intern Med. 2001 Mar;16(3):168-75.

Beltrán-Aguilar ED, et al., Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004., NCHS Data Brief. 2010 Nov;(53):1-8.

Choi AL., et al., Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis., Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct; 120(10): 1362–1368 Published online 2012 Jul 20. doi:  10.1289/ehp.1104912

Chou R, et al., Prevention of Dental Caries in Children Younger Than 5 Years Old., Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2014 May. Report No.: 12-05170-EF-1

Clark MB, et al., Fluoride use in caries prevention in the primary care setting., Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134(3):626-33. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1699.

DenBesten PK, Biological mechanisms of dental fluorosis relevant to the use of fluoride supplements., Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1999 Feb;27(1):41-7.

Diduch M, et al., Chemical quality of bottled waters: a review., J Food Sci. 2011 Nov-Dec;76(9):R178-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02386.x.

Division of Oral Health, CDC Statement on the 2006 National Research Council (NRC) Report on Fluoride in Drinking Water. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion CDC.gov July 10, 2013

Elkhadem A, Wanees S., Limited evidence suggests standard fluoride toothpaste reduces caries potential in preschool children., Evid Based Dent. 2014 Mar;15(1):5. doi: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6400979.

Harding MA, O’Mullane DM., Water fluoridation and oral health., Acta Med Acad. 2013 Nov;42(2):131-9. doi: 10.5644/ama2006-124.81.

Ikem A, et al., Chemical quality of bottled waters from three cities in eastern Alabama., Sci Total Environ. 2002 Feb 21;285(1-3):165-75.

Kim FM, et al., An Assessment of Bone Fluoride and Osteosarcoma., J Dent Res. 2011 Oct; 90(10): 1171–1176. doi:  10.1177/0022034511418828

Marinho VC, et al., Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 11;7:CD002279. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002279.pub2.

Parnell C, et al., Water fluoridation., Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2009 Sep;10(3):141-8.

Tiemann  M, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Review of Fluoridation and Regulation Issues.,  Congressional Research Service, April 5, 2013  

Walsh T, et al., Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents., Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD007868. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007868.pub2.

Yeung CA, A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of fluoridation., Evid Based Dent. 2008;9(2):39-43. doi: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6400578.