February 18, 2016

Chapter 9 References

This Is Your Child’s Brain on Screens

Tablets, Smartphones and Other Mobile Devices

Keywords: screens, mobile devices, children, pediatric, outcomes, attention, blue light, sleep, educational media, educational television, screens, electronic, literacy

Mobile devices before age 2

Chang AM, et al., Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2015 Jan 27;112(4):1232-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1418490112. Epub 2014 Dec 22.

Christakis DA, et al., Modifying media content for preschool children: a randomized controlled trial., Pediatrics.2013 Mar;131(3):431-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1493. Epub 2013 Feb 18.

Christakis DA,et al., Interactive media use at younger than the age of 2 years: time to rethink the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline?, JAMA Pediatr.2014 May;168(5):399-400. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5081.

Falbe J, et al., Sleep Duration, Restfulness, and Screens in the Sleep Environment., Pediatrics. 2015 Feb;135(2):e367-75. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-2306. Epub 2015 Jan 5.

Gentile DA, et al., Protective effects of parental monitoring of children’s media use: a prospective study., JAMA Pediatr.2014 May;168(5):479-84. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.146.

Lerner C., Barr R, Screen Sense: Setting the Record Straight. Research-Based Guidelines for Screen Use for Children Under 3 Years Old., ZERO TO THREE, Department of Psychology and Georgetown Early Learning Project at Georgetown University

Radesky JS, et al., Mobile and interactive media use by young children: the good, the bad, and the unknown., Pediatrics. 2015 Jan;135(1):1-3. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-2251.

Radesky JS, et al., Patterns of Mobile Device Use by Caregivers and Children During Meals in Fast Food Restaurants., Pediatrics. 2014 Apr;133(4):e843-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3703. Epub 2014 Mar 10.


The screen as classroom

Cantlon JF,Li R., Neural activity during natural viewing of Sesame Street statistically predicts test scores in early childhood., PLoS Biol.2013;11(1):e1001462. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001462. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

Chiong C, et al., The Joan Ganz Cooney Center Print books vs Ebooks., The Joan Ganz Cooney Center July 2012.

Chiong, C., Shuler, C., Learning: Is there an app for that? Investigations of young children’s usage and learning with mobile devices and apps., New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop. (2010).

Common Sense Media, Zero to Eight: Children’s Media Use in America 2013., A Common Sense Research Study October 28, 2013.


E-books and mobile devices

Kirkorian HL, et al., Media and young children’s learning., Future Child.2008 Spring;18(1):39-61.

Krcmar M, Assessing the research on media cognitive development and infants., Journal of Children and Media 05/2010; 4(2):119-134. DOI: 10.1080/17482791003629586  

Krcmar M, Can infants and toddlers learn words from repeat exposure to an infant directed DVD? Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 58, Issue 2, 2014. DOI: 10.1080/08838151.2014.906429

Krcmar M, et al., Can toddlers learn vocabulary from television? An experimental approach., Media Psychology. Vol. 10 Issue 1, 2007. DOI: 10.1080/15213260701300931

Krcmar M, et al., Parent–Child Joint Reading in Traditional and Electronic Formats. Media Psychology, Vol. 17, Issue 3, 2014. 262-281. DOI: 10.1080/15213269.2013.840243

Mares ML, Positive Effects of Television on Social Behavior: A Meta-Analysis., Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania under the Direction of Kathleen Hall Jamieson 17 June, 1996  

Mendelsohn AL, et al., Infant Media Exposure and Toddler Development., Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Jan; 165(1): 33–41. doi:  10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.254

Moses AM, Impact of television viewing on young children’s literacy development in the USA: a review of the literature. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy. Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2008, 67-102. doi: 10.1177/1468798407087162

Radesky JS, et al., Mobile and interactive media use by young children: the good, the bad, and the unknown., Pediatrics. 2015 Jan;135(1):1-3. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-2251.

Strasburger VC, et al., Why is it so hard to believe that media influence children and adolescents?, Pediatrics.2014 Apr;133(4):571-3. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2334. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

Strasburger VC; Council on Communications and Media American Academy of Pediatrics., From the American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement Media Education. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):1012-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-1636. Epub 2010 Sep 27.

Wainwright  DK, Ready to Learn: Literature Review Series., Children’s Media Center. September 28, 2006.


TV: The Good and the Bad  

Keywords: background television, television, screen time, obesity, sleep, tobacco, sexual content, alcohol, advertising, calorie-dense, food marketing, media

TV: The Good, The Bad, and the Very, Very Bad

Hogan MJ, Prosocial effects of media., Pediatr Clin North Am.2012 Jun;59(3):635-45, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2012.03.020. Epub 2012 Apr 18.

Strasburger VC, et al., Health effects of media on children and adolescents., Pediatrics.2010 Apr;125(4):756-67. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2563. Epub 2010 Mar 1.


TV Under 3

Courage ML, et al., When the television is on: the impact of infant-directed video on 6- and 18-month-olds’ attention during toy play and on parent-infant interaction., Infant Behav Dev.2010 Apr;33(2):176-88. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.12.012. Epub 2010 Jan 27.

Ferguson CJ,Donnellan MB., Is the association between children’s baby video viewing and poor language development robust? A reanalysis of Zimmerman, Christakis, and Meltzoff (2007)., Dev Psychol.2014 Jan;50(1):129-37. doi: 10.1037/a0033628. Epub 2013 Jul 15.

Kirkorian HL, et al., The impact of background television on parent-child interaction., Child Dev.2009 Sep-Oct;80(5):1350-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01337.x.

Lapierre MA, et al., Background television in the homes of US children., Pediatrics.2012 Nov;130(5):839-46. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2581. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Manganello JA,Taylor CA., Television exposure as a risk factor for aggressive behavior among 3-year-old children., Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.2009 Nov;163(11):1037-45. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.193.

Nathanson AI., et al., The Relation Between Television Exposure and Theory of Mind Among Preschoolers., Journal of Communication. Volume 63, Issue 6, pages 1088–1108, December 2013. DOI: 10.1111/jcom.12062

Pagani LS, et al., Early childhood television viewing and kindergarten entry readiness., Pediatr Res.2013 Sep;74(3):350-5. doi: 10.1038/pr.2013.105. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Schmidt ME,Vandewater EA., Media and attention, cognition, and school achievement., Future Child.2008 Spring;18(1):63-85.

Zimmerman FJ, et al., Associations between media viewing and language development in children under age 2 years

Zimmerman FJ,Christakis DA., Children’s television viewing and cognitive outcomes: a longitudinal analysis of national data., Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.2005 Jul;159(7):619-25.


Sex, Drugs and Rock and Roll

Chandra A, et al., Does watching sex on television predict teen pregnancy? Findings from a national longitudinal survey of youth., Pediatrics.2008 Nov;122(5):1047-54. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3066.

Dalton MA, et al., Use of cigarettes and alcohol by preschoolers while role-playing as adults: “Honey, have some smokes“., Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.2005 Sep;159(9):854-9.

Hanewinkel R, et al., Portrayal of alcohol consumption in movies and drinking initiation in low-risk adolescents., Pediatrics.2014 Jun;133(6):973-82. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3880. Epub 2014 May 5.

Hanewinkel R, et al., Smoking in movies and established smoking in adolescence., Gesundheitswesen.2012 Aug;74(8-9):476-84. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1285859. Epub 2011 Aug 30.

Hunt K, et al., Exposure to smoking in films and own smoking among Scottish adolescents: a cross-sectional study., Thorax.2011 Oct;66(10):866-74. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200095. Epub 2011 Jul 15.

Jamieson PE,Romer D., Portrayal of tobacco use in prime-time TV dramas: trends and associations with adult cigarette consumption–USA, 1955-2010., Tob Control.2015 May;24(3):243-8. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050896. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

Lochbuehler K, et al., Influence of smoking cues in movies on children’s beliefs about smoking., Pediatrics.2012 Aug;130(2):221-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-1792. Epub 2012 Jul 9.

Waylen AE, et al., Cross-sectional association between smoking depictions in films and adolescent tobacco use nested in a British cohort study., Thorax.2011 Oct;66(10):856-61. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200053.



Bernhardt AM, et al., Children’s reaction to depictions of healthy foods in fast-food television advertisements., JAMA Pediatr.2014 May;168(5):422-6. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.140.

Bragg MA, et al., Athlete endorsements in food marketing., Pediatrics.2013 Nov;132(5):805-10. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0093. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Harrison K, Marske AL, Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children’s television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients., Am J Public Health. 2005 September; 95(9): 1568–1574. doi:  10.2105/AJPH.2004.048058

Harrison K,Marske AL., Nutritional content of foods advertised during the television programs children watch most., Am J Public Health.2005 Sep;95(9):1568-74.

Robinson TN , et al., Effects of fast food branding on young children’s taste preferences., Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.2007 Aug;161(8):792-7.

Stitt C,Kunkel D., Food advertising during children’s television programming on broadcast and cable channels., Health Commun.2008 Nov;23(6):573-84. doi: 10.1080/10410230802465258.

Strasburger VC, et al., Policy statement–children, adolescents, substance abuse, and the media., Pediatrics.2010 Oct;126(4):791-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-1635. Epub 2010 Sep 27.



Bickham DS, et al., Characteristics of screen media use associated with higher BMI in young adolescents., Pediatrics. 2013 May;131(5):935-41. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1197. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Carlson SA, et al., Influence of limit-setting and participation in physical activity on youth screen time., Pediatrics. 2010 Jul;126(1):e89-96. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-3374. Epub 2010 Jun 14.

Cox R, et al., The association between television viewing and preschool child body mass index : a systematic review of english papers published from 1995 to 2010. Journal of Children and Media Volume 6, Issue 2, 2012. DOI: 10.1080/17482798.2011.587145

de Jong E, et al., Association between TV viewing, computer use and overweight, determinants and competing activities of screen time in 4- to 13-year-old children., Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Jan;37(1):47-53. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.244. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

Falbe J, et al., Adiposity and different types of screen time., Pediatrics. 2013 Dec;132(6):e1497-505. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0887. Epub 2013 Nov 25

Moriarty CM,  Harrison K, Television Exposure and Disordered Eating Among Children: A Longitudinal Panel Study. Journal of Communication  Volume 58, Issue 2, pages 361–381, June 2008. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.00389.x

Rey-López JP, et al., Physical activity does not attenuate the obesity risk of TV viewing in youth., Pediatr Obes. 2012 Jun;7(3):240-50. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2011.00021.x. Epub 2012 Feb 21.

Strasburger VC, et al., Policy statement–children, adolescents, substance abuse, and the media., Pediatrics.2010 Oct;126(4):791-9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-1635. Epub 2010 Sep 27.

Tiberio SS, et al., Parental monitoring of children’s media consumption: the long-term influences on body mass index in children., JAMA Pediatr. 2014 May;168(5):414-21. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5483.

Viner RM, Cole TJ., Television viewing in early childhood predicts adult body mass index., J Pediatr. 2005 Oct;147(4):429-35.


Screens in the bedroom

Adachi-Mejia AM, et al., Children with a TV in their bedroom at higher risk for being overweight., Int J Obes (Lond).2007 Apr;31(4):644-51. Epub 2006 Sep 12.

Chahal H, et al., Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children., Pediatr Obes.2013 Feb;8(1):42-51. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00085.x. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

Dennison BA, et al., Television viewing and television in bedroom associated with overweight risk among low-income preschool children., Pediatrics.2002 Jun;109(6):1028-35.


The Violence Connection

Keywords: screens, violence, media  

Anderson CA, et al., The Influence of Media Violence on Youth., Psychological Science in the Public Interest December 2003 vol. 4 no. 3.  doi: 10.1111/j.1529-1006.2003.pspi_1433.x

Browne KD,Hamilton-Giachritsis C., The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: a public-health approach., Lancet.2005 Feb 19-25;365(9460):702-10.

Buijzen M, et al., Parental mediation of children’s emotional responses to a violent news event., Communication Research April 2007 vol. 34 no. 2 212-230.  doi: 10.1177/0093650206298070

Bushman BJ, et al., Gun violence trends in movies., Pediatrics.2013 Dec;132(6):1014-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1600. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Bushman BJ, et al., There Is Broad Consensus: Media Researchers Agree That Violent Media Increase Aggression in Children, and Pediatricians and Parents Concur.. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 2014; DOI: 10.1037/ppm0000046

Council on Communications and Media., From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy statement–Media violence., Pediatrics.2009 Nov;124(5):1495-503. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2146. Epub 2009 Oct 19.

Ferguson CJ,Kilburn J., The public health risks of media violence: a meta-analytic review., J Pediatr.2009 May;154(5):759-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.11.033. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Fitzpatrick C, et al., Early exposure to media violence and later child adjustment., J Dev Behav Pediatr.2012 May;33(4):291-7. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e31824eaab3.

Greitemeyer T,Mügge DO., Video games do affect social outcomes: a meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play., Pers Soc Psychol Bull.2014 May;40(5):578-89. doi: 10.1177/0146167213520459. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Huesmann LR, et al., Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992., Dev Psychol.2003 Mar;39(2):201-21.

Kennedy C, et al., Disaster at a distance: impact of 9.11.01 televised news coverage on mothers’ and children’s health., J Pediatr Nurs.2004 Oct;19(5):329-39.

Martins N. , Wilson B., Mean on the Screen: Social Aggression in Programs Popular With Children. Journal of Communication  Volume 62, Issue 6, pages 991–1009, December 2012. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01599.x

Pelletier AR, et al., Firearm use in G- and PG-rated movies, 2008-2012., Am J Prev Med.2014 Dec;47(6):e11-2. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.09.010. Epub 2014 Nov 18.

Phillips D, et al., Elementary school children’s responses 3 months after the September 11 terrorist attacks: a study in Washington, DC., Am J Orthopsychiatry.2004 Oct;74(4):509-28.

Riddle K, et al., “People killing people on the news”: Young children’s descriptions of frightening television news content., Communication Quarterly Volume 60, Issue 2, 2012. 278-294. DOI: 10.1080/01463373.2012.669340

Tortolero SR, et al., Daily violent video game playing and depression in preadolescent youth., Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw.2014 Sep;17(9):609-15. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0091. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Verlinden M, et al., Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school., BMC Public Health. 2014 Feb 12;14:157. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-157.

Wilson BJ, Media and children’s aggression, fear, and altruism., Future Child.2008 Spring;18(1):87-118.

Yang GA, et al., Effects of Avatar Race in Violent Video Games on Racial Attitudes and Aggression. Social Psychological and Personality Science August 2014 vol. 5 no. 6 698-704. doi: 10.1177/1948550614528008

Yang GS, et al., Effects of playing a violent video game as male versus female avatar on subsequent aggression in male and female players., Aggress Behav.2014 Nov-Dec;40(6):537-41. doi: 10.1002/ab.21551. Epub 2014 Jul 18.